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تعداد آیتم قابل مشاهده باقیمانده : 3 مورد
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Causes of secondary constipation

Causes of secondary constipation
Cause Example
Organic Colorectal cancer, extraintestinal mass, postinflammatory, ischemic, or surgical stenosis
Endocrine or metabolic Diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, hypercalcemia, porphyria, chronic renal insufficiency, panhypopituitarism, pregnancy
Neurologic Spinal cord injury, Parkinson disease, paraplegia, multiple sclerosis, autonomic neuropathy, Hirschsprung disease, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction
Myogenic Myotonic dystrophy, dermatomyositis, scleroderma, amyloidosis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction
Anorectal Anal fissure, anal strictures, inflammatory bowel disease, proctitis
Drugs Opiates, antihypertensive agents, tricyclic antidepressants, iron preparations, antiseizure medications, anti-Parkinsonian agents (anticholinergic or dopaminergic), barium
Diet or lifestyle Low-fiber diet, dehydration, inactive lifestyle
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