ﺑﺎﺯﮔﺸﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻗﺒﻠﯽ
خرید پکیج
تعداد آیتم قابل مشاهده باقیمانده : 3 مورد
نسخه الکترونیک
medimedia.ir

Patient education: Alcohol and your health (The Basics)

Patient education: Alcohol and your health (The Basics)

Is alcohol safe for me? — There is not always a simple answer. Drinking any amount of alcohol comes with risks.

Some people should not drink any alcohol at all. This includes people who:

Are younger than the legal drinking age

Are pregnant or trying to get pregnant

Have liver disease or certain other health conditions

Are working with dangerous equipment or machines

Take certain medicines

Have had problems with alcohol use in the past

If you do choose to drink alcohol, it's important to know the risks.

How does alcohol affect my health? — Alcohol can cause serious health problems. In general, the more a person drinks over time, the higher their risk of health problems.

Drinking increases the risk of:

Cancer – Heavy drinking increases the risk of several types of cancer. These include breast, esophageal, colorectal, pancreatic, liver, and head and neck cancer. Even having 1 to 2 drinks a day might increase the risk of some cancers, such as breast cancer.

Liver disease – People who drink a lot of alcohol can get something called "cirrhosis." This is a disease that scars the liver. It can cause bleeding in the digestive tract, swelling, breathing problems, and death.

Heart problems – Heavy drinking increases the risk "atrial fibrillation," which is an abnormal heart rhythm. It also increases the risk of high blood pressure and stroke. Over time, heavy drinking can lead to heart failure.

Pancreatitis – This is when the pancreas gets irritated or swollen. It can cause severe belly pain. Over time, it can make it hard for the body to digest food normally. It also increases a person's risk of diabetes.

Gout flares – In people with gout, drinking alcohol can trigger attacks, or "flares."

Osteoporosis – People who drink heavily are more likely to have osteoporosis. This is a disease that makes your bones weak. It increases the risk of fractures (broken bones).

Problems with the brain and nerves – Over time, heavy drinking can lead to trouble with thinking and memory. It can also cause muscle weakness and problems with coordination.

Problems with sex

Drinking makes it hard to think clearly. It also affects decision-making and coordination. People who drink are more likely to:

Get into accidents

Die by suicide

Drown

Get seriously hurt

Hurt someone else

Can alcohol be good for you? — It's not clear. There is some evidence that a small amount of alcohol might be good for heart health. Some studies suggest that this might be true for wine, but not for other types of alcohol. Other studies have not found any benefit. Also, drinking more than about 1 drink a day cancels out any possible benefit.

Doctors do not recommend drinking alcohol to try to improve your health.

How do doctors define different levels of drinking? — Doctors use different definitions for "moderate," "heavy," and "binge" drinking. They are all based on a standard definition of a "drink." In the US, 1 drink equals:

12 ounces (about 350 mL) of beer

5 ounces (about 150 mL) of wine

1 shot (1.5 ounces or about 50 mL) of liquor

If a serving size is larger than these examples, it contains more alcohol.

Commonly used definitions include:

Moderate drinking – If people choose to drink, doctors usually recommend only "moderate" alcohol use. This means:

For males – No more than 2 drinks a day

For females – No more than 1 drink a day

The guidelines are different for males and females for several reasons. These include differences in average body size, the amount of water in the body, and how the body processes alcohol.

Heavy drinking – This means drinking enough to increase your risk of health problems. It is sometimes called "risky" drinking. This usually means:

For males under 65 years – More than 14 drinks a week or 4 drinks on any day.

For females and males 65 years and older – More than 7 drinks a week or 3 drinks on any day.

"Binge" drinking – This means drinking a lot of alcohol in a short time (about 2 hours). It is usually defined as 5 or more drinks for males, or 4 or more drinks for females. Binge drinking is dangerous, even if it does not happen often. That's because people are more likely to get hurt or make dangerous decisions while drunk.

What if I want to get pregnant? — Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can cause serious problems. If you want to get pregnant, it's best to stop drinking before you start trying.

Drinking during pregnancy increases the risk of:

Your baby having "fetal alcohol spectrum disorder" – This causes brain damage and growth problems. Compared with healthy babies, babies with this condition tend to weigh less, have smaller heads, and be very fussy. When they grow up, they have life-long problems with thinking and behavior.

Pregnancy loss or stillbirth – Pregnancy loss is when a pregnancy ends before 20 weeks. It is also called "miscarriage." Stillbirth is when a baby dies before it is born, in the second half of pregnancy (after 20 weeks).

Because of these risks, doctors recommend completely avoiding alcohol during pregnancy. No amount of alcohol is known to be safe during pregnancy.

What should I do if I think that I have a drinking problem? — Some people have problems with alcohol. They might:

Drink more than they mean to

Need more and more alcohol to get the same effects

Notice symptoms if they drink less

Have a strong need or craving to drink alcohol

Be unable to stop or limit their drinking

Have problems with work or relationships because of their drinking

If you think that you might have a problem with alcohol, talk to your doctor or nurse. When a person becomes addicted to alcohol, doctors call this "alcohol use disorder." There are treatments that can help.

Many people can cut back on drinking on their own. But if you have been drinking several days a week for weeks in a row, do not try to cut back without the help of a doctor or nurse. Stopping or reducing drinking too quickly can cause something called "alcohol withdrawal." This can cause symptoms and, in some cases, even lead to death.

More on this topic

Patient education: Alcohol use — when is drinking a problem? (Beyond the Basics)
Patient education: Substance use disorder (The Basics)
Patient education: Alcohol poisoning (The Basics)
Patient education: Alcohol withdrawal (The Basics)
Patient education: Alcohol and drug use in pregnancy (The Basics)
Patient education: Fetal alcohol syndrome (The Basics)
Patient education: Cirrhosis (The Basics)

Patient education: Alcohol use — when is drinking a problem? (Beyond the Basics)
Patient education: Risks and benefits of alcohol (Beyond the Basics)
Patient education: Cirrhosis (Beyond the Basics)

This topic retrieved from UpToDate on: Jun 02, 2024.
Disclaimer: This generalized information is a limited summary of diagnosis, treatment, and/or medication information. It is not meant to be comprehensive and should be used as a tool to help the user understand and/or assess potential diagnostic and treatment options. It does NOT include all information about conditions, treatments, medications, side effects, or risks that may apply to a specific patient. It is not intended to be medical advice or a substitute for the medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment of a health care provider based on the health care provider's examination and assessment of a patient's specific and unique circumstances. Patients must speak with a health care provider for complete information about their health, medical questions, and treatment options, including any risks or benefits regarding use of medications. This information does not endorse any treatments or medications as safe, effective, or approved for treating a specific patient. UpToDate, Inc. and its affiliates disclaim any warranty or liability relating to this information or the use thereof. The use of this information is governed by the Terms of Use, available at https://www.wolterskluwer.com/en/know/clinical-effectiveness-terms. 2024© UpToDate, Inc. and its affiliates and/or licensors. All rights reserved.
Topic 143515 Version 1.0

آیا می خواهید مدیلیب را به صفحه اصلی خود اضافه کنید؟