ﺑﺎﺯﮔﺸﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻗﺒﻠﯽ
خرید پکیج
تعداد آیتم قابل مشاهده باقیمانده : 3 مورد
نسخه الکترونیک
medimedia.ir

Molluscum contagiosum

Molluscum contagiosum
Literature review current through: Aug 2023.
This topic last updated: Feb 07, 2023.

INTRODUCTION — Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) is a poxvirus that causes a chronic, localized infection, consisting of skin-colored, dome-shaped papules on the skin of an infected individual (picture 1A-G). The epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of MCV infection will be reviewed here.

VIROLOGY — Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) is a double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (dsDNA) virus and member of the poxvirus family. MCV is in a different genus (Molluscipoxvirus) than the orthopoxviruses (variola, vaccinia, and monkeypox viruses). Thus, preventive vaccines and therapies developed to target orthopoxviruses are ineffective at preventing molluscum contagiosum. (See "Variola virus (smallpox)" and "Vaccines to prevent smallpox, mpox (monkeypox), and other orthopoxviruses" and "Treatment and prevention of mpox (monkeypox)".)

Four major genotypes of MCV have been identified, with molluscum contagiosum virus genotype 1 (MCV1) and molluscum contagiosum virus genotype 2 (MCV2) as the most common genotypes [1]. MCV causes a chronic, localized infection with small papules on the skin. Similar to the virus that causes smallpox, the only known host for MCV is humans.

Information about MCV at the molecular level has been hampered by the inability to grow the virus in standard cell culture or in an animal model of infection. While there are reports of some success in growth using human foreskin xenograft fragments [2], a major advance in understanding the biology of the virus came when the entire 190,000 base pair genome of the MCV was sequenced [3,4].

Like variola and vaccinia viruses, MCV replicates in the cytoplasm of cells, and more than one-half of the MCV genes are similar to those found in variola and vaccinia viruses [3,4]. Molluscum contagiosum contains many unique genes that encode proteins responsible for novel viral defense mechanisms; these mechanisms inhibit the host inflammatory and immune responses to the infection [5-10].

EPIDEMIOLOGY — Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) infection has been reported worldwide. Although four distinct genotypes have been identified, molluscum contagiosum virus genotype 1 (MCV1) predominates and represents 90 percent of cases in the United States [11]. A population-based Australian seroepidemiology study in 357 people revealed an overall seropositivity rate of 23 percent [12]. The data also indicated that very mild or subclinical cases may be more common in the general community than previously suspected.

It is estimated that fewer than 5 percent of children in the United States have clinical evidence of MCV infection [11]. The number of cases in adults has varied over time. In the 1980s, the number of molluscum contagiosum cases increased, apparently as a result of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic [13]. However, since the introduction of potent antiretroviral therapy (ART), the number of molluscum contagiosum cases in patients with AIDS has decreased substantially [14].

RISK FACTORS — Molluscum contagiosum is a common disease of childhood. The disease also occurs in healthy adolescents and adults, often as a sexually transmitted disease or in relation to participation in contact sports [11]. Molluscum contagiosum is also associated with immunodeficient states. It can occur in the setting of underlying cellular immunodeficiency, such as in inherited immunodeficiencies [15], during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, or following treatment with immunosuppressive drugs.

Although it has been proposed that atopic dermatitis is a risk factor for molluscum contagiosum (picture 1G), data conflict on the relationship between these diseases. An increased risk is suggested by studies that report prevalence rates for atopic dermatitis between 18 and 45 percent among patients with molluscum contagiosum, rates that exceed the estimated prevalence of atopic dermatitis in the general pediatric population (10 to 20 percent) [16]. It is theorized that the relative suppression of T-helper cell type 1 responses in acute skin lesions of atopic dermatitis could contribute to a predisposition for molluscum contagiosum in the atopic dermatitis population.

A nursery school-based study of over 1100 children in Japan did not find a statistically significant association between a history of molluscum contagiosum and a history of atopic dermatitis (odds ratio 1.64, 95% CI 1.00-2.68) [17]. Thus, the relationship between atopic dermatitis and molluscum contagiosum remains uncertain.

TRANSMISSION — Like many viruses in the poxvirus family, molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) is spread by direct skin-to-skin contact and thus can occur anywhere on the body. The virus can be transmitted via autoinoculation by scratching or touching a lesion. For example, if the lesions develop on the face, shaving may spread the virus. The only known host for MCV is humans.

Infection can also be spread via fomites on bath sponges or towels or through skin contact during participation in contact sports [11]. An association of molluscum contagiosum with swimming pool use also has been reported [18]. When it occurs in the genital region in sexually active individuals, molluscum contagiosum is classified as a sexually transmitted disease. In contrast to adults and adolescents, autoinoculation, rather than sexual contact, is responsible for most anogenital lesions in children [19].

Estimates for the incubation period of the virus vary from one week to six months, but it is typically between two and six weeks [18].

CLINICAL FEATURES — The molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) causes a chronic, localized infection characterized by firm, dome shaped papules on the skin (picture 1A-G). Lesions are often 2 to 5 mm in diameter, with a shiny surface and central indentation or umbilication. Occasionally, the growths can be polypoid with a stalk-like base. Pruritus may be present or absent, and lesions sometimes become visibly inflamed.

Molluscum contagiosum may appear anywhere on the body except the palms and soles. The most common areas of involvement include the trunk, axillae, antecubital and popliteal fossae, and crural folds. Lesions on the eyelid can cause conjunctivitis (picture 2A-B) [20]. Oral mucosal involvement is rare [21]. Sexually transmitted molluscum contagiosum typically involves the groin, genitals, proximal thighs, and lower abdomen. In patients infected with HIV or otherwise immunocompromised, lesions can be large (aka giant molluscum) and widespread (picture 3A-B).

ASSOCIATED CLINICAL FINDINGS

Molluscum dermatitis — Molluscum dermatitis, which is characterized by the development of eczematous patches or plaques surrounding molluscum contagiosum lesions, is a common phenomenon (picture 4). Estimates of the proportion of patients with molluscum who develop molluscum dermatitis have ranged from 9 to 47 percent [16].

Whether the use of topical corticosteroid therapy for molluscum dermatitis impacts the prognosis of molluscum contagiosum is unclear. Although there is some concern that local immunosuppression from topical corticosteroids could inhibit clearance of the infection, this has not been proven [22,23]. On the other hand, it is conceivable that untreated molluscum dermatitis could contribute to spread of the infection through scratching.

A short course (eg, up to two weeks) of a low or medium potency topical corticosteroid (table 1) can be used to treat sites of molluscum dermatitis in patients in whom the condition is pruritic. Emollients may be used for the management of asymptomatic patients [23].

Inflamed lesions — Inflamed molluscum contagiosum, which is characterized by erythema and swelling of individual lesions, is a clinical finding that may portend a higher likelihood of impending clinical improvement [16,24]. In a retrospective study of 696 children with molluscum contagiosum, children with inflamed lesions were less likely to develop an increase in the number of lesions over the course of three months than patients who had neither inflamed lesions nor molluscum dermatitis [16]. In a case series of seven children with inflamed molluscum, the duration from onset of inflammation to resolution ranged from three weeks to five months [24]. Inflamed molluscum should not be mistaken for secondary bacterial infection. Antibiotic treatment is not needed.

Other — Gianotti-Crosti syndrome (also known as papular acrodermatitis) is a pruritic inflammatory skin condition that may occur in association with viral infections in children (picture 5). The face, buttocks, and extremities are common sites for lesion development. (See "Gianotti-Crosti syndrome (papular acrodermatitis)".)

Gianotti-Crosti like eruptions have been reported in patients with molluscum contagiosum. In one large retrospective study, this phenomenon was diagnosed in 5 percent [16]. Gianotti-Crosti like reactions may portend a higher likelihood of forthcoming clinical improvement [16].

DIAGNOSIS — The diagnosis of molluscum contagiosum is usually made by the characteristic appearance of the lesions (firm, dome-shaped papules with central umbilication (picture 6)). When necessary, histologic examination can confirm the clinical diagnosis. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of a molluscum contagiosum lesion typically reveals keratinocytes containing eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (also known as molluscum bodies or Henderson-Paterson bodies) (picture 7) [25].

Dermoscopic examination can be useful for supporting a clinical diagnosis of molluscum contagiosum. Visualization of a central umbilication with polylobular, white to yellow, amorphous structures is typical (picture 8) [26,27]. A peripheral crown of radiating or punctiform vessels is also present [28]. (See "Dermoscopy of mucosal lesions", section on 'Molluscum contagiosum'.)

Although usually not indicated, electron microscopy of biopsies demonstrates typical brick-shaped poxvirus particles. Electron microscopy can also identify infected cells that appear normal on light microscopy [29].

When other diagnoses (eg, mpox [monkeypox]) are suspected, additional tests may be warranted. (See 'Differential diagnosis' below.)

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS — Skin lesions due to cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, or Talaromyces marneffei (formerly Penicillium marneffei) infection may resemble molluscum lesions (picture 9A-E) [30]. The possibility of these disorders should be considered in immunosuppressed patients. (See "Pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of disseminated histoplasmosis" and "Cryptococcus neoformans infection outside the central nervous system", section on 'Nonmeningeal, nonpulmonary cryptococcosis' and "Epidemiology and clinical manifestations of Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei infection", section on 'Clinical manifestations'.)

Skin lesions due to mpox (monkeypox) may also resemble molluscum contagiosum (picture 10). A global outbreak of mpox was first recognized in May 2022. In contrast to molluscum contagiosum, systemic symptoms (eg, fever, chills, myalgias) frequently (but not always) accompany monkeypox virus infection. (See "Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of mpox (monkeypox)".)

Other lesions that may be mistaken for molluscum contagiosum include flat warts, condyloma acuminatum, condylomata lata (picture 11), pyogenic granuloma (picture 12), adnexal tumors, Langerhans cell histiocytosis (picture 13), basal cell carcinoma (picture 14), and amelanotic melanoma. Skin biopsy is useful for distinguishing molluscum contagiosum from other disorders.

NATURAL HISTORY — In immunocompetent patients, individual lesions usually resolve spontaneously within two months, and the infection often clears completely within 6 to 12 months [19,24,31]. In a minority of cases, disease persists for three to five years [19,24,31]. Although scarring can occur after spontaneous resolution, most molluscum contagiosum lesions do not resolve with scars.

LABORATORY TESTS — Laboratory studies usually are not indicated in children with molluscum contagiosum. Sexually active adolescents and adults with genital lesions should be evaluated for the presence of other sexually transmitted diseases. Patients with extensive lesions should be tested for HIV infection, and the possibility of other immune system disorders should also be considered. (See "Screening and diagnostic testing for HIV infection" and "Approach to the child with recurrent infections".)

OVERVIEW OF MANAGEMENT — The self-limited nature of molluscum contagiosum and the paucity of evidence that definitively supports therapeutic intervention have led to debate over the need for treatment [32,33].

Decision to treat — Potential advantages of successful treatment include limitation of lesion spread to other sites, reduction of the risk of transmission to others, resolution of pruritus when present, and the prevention of scarring that can result from lesions that become inflamed, traumatized, or secondarily infected. Treatment may also reduce the patient, parent, or caregiver's psychologic stress over the appearance of lesions. However, depending on the chosen therapy, treatment can be time consuming or can result in adverse effects such as pain, irritation, dyspigmentation, or scarring.

In general, adolescents and adults with sexually transmitted molluscum contagiosum should be treated to avoid spread of the disease to others. Early treatment is also indicated in the setting of immunocompromised individuals, in whom infections can become severe.

For immunocompetent children with molluscum contagiosum, treatment is optional. One retrospective study utilizing a telephone survey and medical chart review found similar rates of molluscum contagiosum resolution among 46 treated and 124 untreated children; approximately 50 percent of children in both groups had complete resolution within 12 months [32].

We typically inform parents and guardians of the expected course of the disease without treatment and the potential adverse effects of each treatment option. When parents or guardians desire intervention, we proceed with therapy.

Prior to treatment, a full skin examination should be performed on patients with molluscum to identify all lesions. Incomplete treatment may result in continued autoinoculation and failure to achieve cure.

Periocular lesions — The destructive methods and topical agents reviewed below should not be utilized on lesions involving the ocular mucosa or eyelids. Patients with symptomatic ocular lesions should be referred to an ophthalmologist for management.

FIRST-LINE THERAPIES — Strong evidence for the efficacy of any treatment for molluscum contagiosum is lacking. A systematic review of randomized trials that investigated the efficacy of treatments for nongenital molluscum contagiosum in healthy individuals found insufficient evidence to conclude that any treatment was definitively effective [33].

Despite the absence of large placebo-controlled trials to support the efficacy of cryotherapy, curettage, and cantharidin, the rapid, clinically evident response associated with their use offers some support for their utility for the removal of individual lesions. The efficacy of podophyllotoxin is supported by data from a placebo-controlled randomized trial. Thus, when a trial of treatment is desired, we consider cryotherapy, curettage, cantharidin, and podophyllotoxin as first-line therapeutic options. The efficacy and safety of podophyllotoxin for molluscum contagiosum in young children have not been definitively established.

Cryotherapy — Liquid nitrogen is used to perform cryotherapy. A cotton-tipped swab dipped in liquid nitrogen and applied to individual lesions for 6 to 10 seconds can be used [19]. (See "Minor dermatologic procedures", section on 'Cryotherapy (cryosurgery)'.)

Cryotherapy was shown to be a rapidly effective therapy in a randomized trial (see 'Comparative studies' below) [34]. Treatment is often well tolerated in adolescents and adults; however, the pain associated with cryotherapy can limit its use in young children, particularly if multiple lesions are present.

Scarring and temporary or permanent hypopigmentation are potential adverse effects of cryotherapy. Hypopigmentation can be prominent in individuals with dark skin.

Curettage — Curettage involves the physical removal of the molluscum contagiosum lesion with a curette. The immediate resolution of lesions has led some clinicians to use this method as their preferred therapy for molluscum contagiosum [35].

Support for the use of curettage comes from a retrospective study that found that 70 percent of 1878 children treated with curettage were cured after a single treatment session [36]. In addition, a trial in which 124 children with molluscum contagiosum were randomly assigned to one of four treatment modalities found that 81 percent of 31 children treated with curettage were cured after a single session [35]. (See 'Comparative studies' below.)

In contrast, a prospective study of 73 children and adults treated with curettage found that 42 out of 64 patients (66 percent) were not cured after a single session, and 25 out of 55 (45 percent) failed to clear after two sessions [37]. Risk factors for treatment failure included a high number of lesions and concomitant atopic dermatitis.

The discomfort and minor bleeding associated with this procedure can be disturbing for some children, and the possibility of the development of small, depressed scars should be discussed with patients or their guardians prior to proceeding. Treatment may be time-consuming due to the need to ease children's fears about the procedure. Topical anesthetics applied prior to curettage can reduce discomfort and facilitate therapy. (See "Clinical use of topical anesthetics in children".)

Cantharidin — Cantharidin is a topical blistering agent that is commonly used for the treatment of molluscum [38]. Treatment should be performed by a clinician; patients should not be given cantharidin to apply at home. The expected response is the development of a small blister at the treatment site, followed by disappearance of the molluscum lesion and healing without scarring.

A trial in which 94 children with molluscum contagiosum were randomly assigned to a single treatment of cantharidin without occlusion, cantharidin with occlusion, placebo without occlusion, or placebo with occlusion found a nonstatistically significant trend towards better outcomes with cantharidin [39]. Total clearance of molluscum lesions at week 6 occurred in 10 of 24 children (42 percent) in the cantharidin with occlusion group, 7 of 23 children (30 percent) in the cantharidin without occlusion group, 2 of 25 children (8 percent) in the placebo with occlusion group, and 3 of 22 children (14 percent) in the placebo without occlusion group. A post-hoc analysis that compared the combined cantharidin groups with the combined placebo groups found the response to cantharidin superior (36 versus 11 percent of patients achieved complete clearance, respectively).

In a retrospective study of 300 children treated with cantharidin (without occlusion) for molluscum, 90 percent of children had lesion clearance, and an additional 8 percent demonstrated improvement without complete clearance [40]. On average, 2.1 clinician visits were necessary to achieve complete clearance. The parents of the patients appeared satisfied with treatment; 95 percent stated that they would be willing to have their child treated again with cantharidin.

Pooled data from two similar, phase 3, randomized trials (CAMP-1 and CAMP-2) support efficacy of cantharidin 0.7% administered via an investigational drug device (VP-102) [41]. In the trials, a total of 529 patients (aged two years and older) with molluscum contagiosum were randomly assigned to application of either VP-102 or vehicle every 21 days for a maximum of four treatments. The study drug was washed off 24 hours after application or earlier, if needed, because of local adverse effects. At day 84, rates of complete clearance were higher in the VP-102 groups than the placebo groups (50 versus 16 percent).

Cantharidin is applied directly to lesions; the blunt wooden end of a cotton swab can be used for application. The site may be then covered, such as with a bandage, to avoid inadvertent spread of the vesicant to other areas. Cantharidin should be washed off with soap and water two to six hours after application or at the first sign of blistering [19]. Occasionally blistering can be exuberant, and it is reasonable to treat a small number of lesions at the first visit. The duration of application can be adjusted based upon the initial response.

Treatments can be repeated every two to four weeks until all lesions have resolved [40]. In general, treatment with cantharidin should be avoided on the face, genital, or perianal areas.

Common adverse effects include transient burning, pain, erythema, and pruritus [40]. Postinflammatory dyspigmentation may occur, but typically resolves over several months. While uncommon, scarring can occur as a consequence of cantharidin treatment [42].

Podophyllotoxin — Podophyllotoxin is an antimitotic agent that is commercially available as podofilox 0.5% in a solution or gel. The efficacy of podophyllotoxin was explored in a randomized trial of 150 males (ages 10 to 26 years); most lesions were located on the thighs or genitalia. Patients in the trial applied 0.5% podophyllotoxin cream, 0.3% podophyllotoxin cream, or placebo twice daily for three consecutive days per week [43]. Treatment was continued for up to four weeks. By the end of treatment, the superiority of 0.5% podophyllotoxin was evident; 92, 52, and 16 percent of patients in the 0.5% podophyllotoxin, 0.3% podophyllotoxin, and placebo groups were cured, respectively.

Local erythema, burning, pruritus, inflammation, and erosions can occur with the use of this agent. The safety and efficacy of podophyllotoxin for molluscum contagiosum have not been definitively established in young children.

OTHER INTERVENTIONS — Although topical therapies such as imiquimod and potassium hydroxide (KOH) have been used for the treatment of molluscum, sufficient data to support a recommendation for the use of these and several other treatments are lacking.

Imiquimod — Imiquimod is a topical immunomodulator that induces the local production of proinflammatory cytokines. Although favorable responses to imiquimod have been reported in uncontrolled studies and case series [44-46], the drug has not been proven more effective than placebo in randomized trials, suggesting that spontaneous resolution may account for some observations of efficacy. Because of the lack of clarity regarding the effect of imiquimod on molluscum contagiosum, we are unable to recommend the routine use of this drug for therapy.

Imiquimod did not appear to be effective in two large, unpublished randomized trials of children who were treated with imiquimod 5% cream or vehicle three times weekly for up to 16 weeks [47]. In the first study, complete clearance of molluscum occurred in 52 of 217 children in the treatment group (24 percent) versus 28 of 106 children in the vehicle group (26 percent). In the second trial, clearance occurred in 60 of 253 children (24 percent) and 35 of 126 children (28 percent) in the treatment and vehicle groups, respectively. Application site reactions, the most commonly reported adverse effects, occurred in 33 percent of patients in the combined imiquimod groups and in 22 percent of patients in the combined vehicle groups [47].

A small, published, placebo-controlled randomized trial (n = 23) also was unable to demonstrate a benefit of imiquimod [48]. Although significantly more patients treated with imiquimod 5% cream (applied three times weekly for up to 12 weeks) achieved partial clearance by week 12 (defined as a ≥30 percent decrease in lesion count) than patients in the placebo group (67 versus 18 percent), the difference in the complete clearance rate (33 versus 9 percent, respectively) was not statistically significant. The small size of the trial may have contributed to the lack of statistical significance.

A few trials have compared imiquimod with other treatments for molluscum. In a small randomized trial, once weekly cryotherapy was associated with a faster rate of lesion clearance than imiquimod 5% cream applied five days per week, but a similar rate of complete cure was observed [34]. Trials that have compared imiquimod with other treatments are reviewed below. (See 'Comparative studies' below.)

Imiquimod is usually applied at night and washed off in the morning. Erythema and pruritus at application sites are common adverse effects [49]. Flu-like symptoms may also occur.

Potassium hydroxide — Potassium hydroxide (KOH), in concentrations of 5 or 10%, has been used for molluscum contagiosum [50-53]. Application frequency reported in the literature ranges from three times per week to twice daily.

In a trial in which 53 young children with molluscum contagiosum were randomly assigned to once-daily application of 10% KOH, 15% KOH, or placebo until complete clearance or a maximum of 60 days, more children in the 10% and 15% KOH groups achieved complete clearance than in the placebo group at day 60 (59, 64, and 19 percent, respectively) [54]. Common side effects included stinging and burning at the site of application.

In a subsequent trial by the same research group in which 91 children (ages 2 to 16) were randomly assigned to application of either 10% KOH or placebo once daily until clearance of lesions or up to a maximum of 30 days, 55 percent of children in the KOH group achieved at least a 75 percent reduction in the number of molluscum lesions within 33 days compared with only 16 percent in the placebo group [53]. Adverse events were more frequent in the KOH group, with local effects at the application site and infections as the most common adverse events. Approximately one-third of children in the KOH group discontinued treatment due to adverse events compared with none in the placebo group.

Lower concentrations of KOH might also be of benefit. In a series of 20 children treated twice daily with 5% KOH in an aqueous solution, all patients cleared within six weeks [52]. Treatment with KOH also has been compared with other therapies for molluscum in randomized trials [55-57]. (See 'Comparative studies' below.)

Stinging or burning sensations often accompany application of KOH [55], and may be reduced with the use of the 5% concentration [51]. Temporary dyspigmentation is another potential adverse effect of this therapy.

Salicylic acid — Salicylic acid is a widely available keratolytic that has been used in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum. In a randomized trial of 124 children, an agent containing salicylic acid 16.7% and lactic acid 16.7% (Duofilm) applied with a tooth pick at home three times per week was compared with three other treatments (see 'Comparative studies' below) [35]. Compared with curettage, patients treated with salicylic acid were more likely to return to the office, which they were instructed to do if lesions persisted. Adverse effects were frequent; 54 percent of patients treated with salicylic/lactic acid experienced side effects. Local irritation is common with the use of salicylic acid.

Use of salicylic acid in combination with sodium nitrite [58] or povidone iodine solution [59] has also been reported.

Topical retinoids — Tretinoin (0.5% cream, 0.1% cream, or 0.025% gel), adapalene, and tazarotene have been used for the treatment of molluscum [60-63]. The mechanism of action is thought to involve the induction of local irritation that damages the viral protein-lipid membrane [64]. Data on the efficacy of these agents are limited to reports of clinical experiences [60-63].

Treatment with topical retinoids can begin every other day and can be increased to twice daily as tolerated [19]. Application is discontinued once local erythema develops [19]. Irritation and xerosis are expected side effects. Topical retinoids should not be used during pregnancy.

Investigational and other therapies — Increasing data suggest potential benefit of other agents, such as berdazimer sodium and silver nitrate paste, for molluscum contagiosum.

A phase 3, vehicle-controlled, randomized trial in which 891 participants (aged six months or older) with nonsexually transmitted molluscum contagiosum were randomly assigned to once-daily treatment with either berdazimer sodium 10.3% gel (an investigational nitric oxide releaser) or vehicle supports benefit of this agent for molluscum contagiosum [65]. At week 12, 32 percent of the berdazimer gel group had complete clearance of lesions compared with 20 percent of the vehicle group.

A paste containing 40% silver nitrate was reported to be effective in a series of 389 patients [66]. Topical phenol [67] and trichloroacetic acid [68,69] also have been used for molluscum contagiosum, but high risks for pain and scarring make these agents unfavorable options.

A nonprescription topical homeopathic agent that contains argentum nitricum, Echinacea angustifolia, Fucus vesiculosus, and Thuja occidentalis is marketed for the treatment of molluscum contagiosum. No published studies have evaluated the efficacy and safety of this product for molluscum contagiosum.

Other physical interventions — Pulsed dye lasers have shown efficacy in case reports and small uncontrolled studies [70-76]. In a prospective study of 19 children treated with a 585 nm pulsed dye laser, a single treatment led to disease resolution in 84 percent of patients [70]. Use of topical anesthetics prior to pulsed dye laser treatment may help to reduce pain associated with laser therapy. Potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) lasers [77], carbon dioxide lasers [78,79], and photodynamic therapy have also been used to treat lesions.

Additional physical interventions that have been reported in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum include electrodessication, manual extrusion of the central core by squeezing [67], removal with sterilized tweezers [80], needle penetration in combination with topical tretinoin [81], intralesional injection with Candida antigen [82], topical 20 to 35% trichloroacetic acid [83], and hyperthermia [84]. The efficacy and safety of these interventions have not been studied in randomized trials.

Oral cimetidine — Cimetidine is an H2 antihistamine that has also been found to have immunomodulatory properties. Data conflict on the efficacy of this agent for molluscum contagiosum [85,86]. In a series of 13 children with molluscum contagiosum who had failed to respond to other therapies, treatment with cimetidine (40 mg/kg/day for two months) was associated with clearance of all lesions [86]. However, in a separate series of 14 children treated with cimetidine 40 mg/kg/day, only four children cleared within three months, and seven children showed no improvement [85]. Three children who did not take cimetidine due to the taste of the medicine or treatment cost spontaneously improved within three months, raising questions about the efficacy of treatment. Additional studies are necessary to investigate the efficacy of cimetidine in the management of molluscum.

COMPARATIVE STUDIES — There are relatively few trials that compare the efficacy of treatments for molluscum. Examples of the available data include:

Multiple therapies – A randomized trial of 124 children (ages 1 to 16 years) compared the safety and efficacy of curettage with topical anesthesia, cantharidin 0.7% (applied for two to four hours), a combination product with 16.7% salicylic acid and 16.7% lactic acid (three times per week), and imiquimod 5% cream (three times per week) [35]. Ten lesions on each patient were treated according to protocol, and the remaining lesions on all patients were treated with curettage. Telephone follow-up was performed on days 7, 21, 84, and 180 and follow-up visits were scheduled for patients with residual lesions. Curettage required the fewest follow-up visits for resolution of all 10 lesions, with 81 percent of patients requiring only one visit. Cantharidin, salicylic/lactic acid, and imiquimod required only one visit 37, 54, and 57 percent of the time, respectively. Caregiver and patient satisfaction with treatment was highest in the curettage group (87 percent), followed by cantharidin (60 percent), imiquimod (45 percent), and salicylic/lactic acid (32 percent). Adverse effects were most common in the group treated with salicylic acid (53 percent of patients).

Imiquimod versus cryotherapy Imiquimod (applied five days per week) was compared with cryotherapy (once weekly) in a randomized trial of 74 children with molluscum contagiosum [34]. Treatment with either regimen was continued until lesion resolution or for up to 16 weeks. Cryotherapy led to complete cure in all patients and more rapid resolution than imiquimod; the majority of children (26 out of 37; 70 percent) were cured within three weeks. In the imiquimod group, 34 of 37 (92 percent) achieved complete cure, with the majority (22 out of 37; 59 percent) clearing within six weeks. The difference in complete cure rates between the two groups was not statistically significant. However, adverse effects (pain, bullae, dyspigmentation, mild scarring) were more common in cryotherapy group.

Imiquimod versus potassium hydroxide Two randomized trials have compared the efficacy of imiquimod 5% cream and 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH). The trials did not find significant differences in efficacy:

In a randomized trial of 30 patients with molluscum contagiosum (ages 1 to 36 years), patients were treated with either agent three nights per week until lesion clearance or for up to 12 weeks [56]. Statistically significant reductions in lesion counts were observed in both groups, but a statistically significant difference in efficacy between the two treatments was not detected. In the trial, 8 out of 14 patients treated with imiquimod (57 percent) and 10 out of 13 patients treated with KOH (77 percent) achieved complete clearance. All patients who achieved complete responses cleared within eight weeks.

Imiquimod and 10% KOH were found to be equally effective for achieving disease clearance in another randomized trial in which patients (ages 2 to 32 years) were treated with either agent three times weekly; all lesions resolved within 12 weeks in 8 out of 18 patients given imiquimod (44 percent) and 8 out of 19 of patients given KOH (42 percent) [55]. Compared with imiquimod, KOH appeared to have a more rapid onset of action and a higher rate of adverse effects (56 versus 78 percent developed side effects). The most common side effects observed were erythema and crusting.

Cryotherapy versus potassium hydroxide – Cryotherapy and KOH were similarly effective in a four-week trial in which 30 patients (ages 1 to 24) were randomly assigned to once weekly cryotherapy or twice daily applications of 10% KOH [57]. After four weeks, 14 of 15 patients in the cryotherapy group (93 percent) and 13 of 15 patients in the KOH group (87 percent) had complete clearance of molluscum lesions. Side effects of transient hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation occurred in both groups.

IMMUNOCOMPROMISED PATIENTS — Immunocompromised patients can develop severe, persistent cases of molluscum contagiosum. Therapies that result in wounds, such as curettage, may be a less favorable option for immunocompromised patients because of an elevated risk for infection.

Case reports have described the successful treatment of severe, refractory molluscum contagiosum in a few immunocompromised patients with imiquimod [45,63,87-89]. However, randomized trials in nonimmunocompromised patients with molluscum contagiosum have failed to find benefit of imiquimod therapy. (See 'Imiquimod' above.)

In addition to the treatments above, immunocompromised patients with refractory disease have been treated with cidofovir.

Cidofovir — Intravenous cidofovir [90-92] and topical cidofovir (1% or 3%) [91,93-96] have been used in immunocompromised patients with severe, refractory molluscum. (See "Cidofovir: An overview", section on 'Basic pharmacokinetics' and "Cidofovir: An overview", section on 'Toxicity'.)

Local irritation and painful cutaneous erosions can occur after application of the topical form [95]. Renal toxicity is a significant concern with the use of systemic cidofovir. Intravenous cidofovir is routinely administered with probenecid to reduce risk for renal toxicity. Probenecid has multiple drug interactions. (See "Cidofovir: An overview", section on 'Basic pharmacokinetics' and "Cidofovir: An overview", section on 'Toxicity'.)

Due to the absence of a commercial product, preparation of topical cidofovir must be entrusted to a compounding pharmacy. The stability, bioavailability, and optimal dosing regimen of such extemporaneous mixtures are unknown.

HIV therapy — Recovery of immune function may result in improvement. In patients infected with HIV, there have been multiple reports of recalcitrant molluscum contagiosum lesions resolving only after initiation of effective antiretroviral therapy [14,97]. However, the development of molluscum contagiosum has also been reported in association with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) following antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV infection [96,98]. (See "Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome".)

SCHOOL AND SPORTS — It is not necessary to remove children with molluscum contagiosum from daycare or school; however, care should be taken to reduce the risk of transmission to others. Lesions in areas that are likely to come in contact with others should be covered with clothing or a watertight bandage. Bathing with other children should be avoided and towels and sponges should not be shared.

Affected individuals do not need to be excluded from contact sports activities provided lesions can be covered with clothing or bandages. Individuals with molluscum contagiosum should not be restricted from the use of public swimming pools.

PREGNANCY — Molluscum contagiosum in pregnancy is not common and the vertical transmission rate is not known. Only a small number of cases of congenital transmission have been documented in the literature [99].

Since molluscum contagiosum is spread by direct contact, a woman with genital lesions at the time of a vaginal delivery could theoretically transmit molluscum to her newborn, as is seen with genital warts. However, studies that have examined the incidence of molluscum contagiosum in children reveal that it is extremely uncommon to find molluscum contagiosum in children under the age of one [100,101]. The lack of many cases in this age group may indicate that infants are protected by passive maternal antibodies or that the infection has a very long incubation period.

There are scant data regarding the management of molluscum contagiosum in pregnancy since it is uncommonly encountered. Due to the toxicity of the chemicals used to treat molluscum contagiosum (eg, podophyllotoxin), we do not recommend their use during pregnancy [102]. Other options include cryotherapy or curettage or no treatment, since molluscum contagiosum is a self-limited disease. Dressings to cover visible lesions during delivery (eg, Tegaderm) may be considered to avoid skin-to-skin contact and hopefully lessen the risk of transmission.

SOCIETY GUIDELINE LINKS — Links to society and government-sponsored guidelines from selected countries and regions around the world are provided separately. (See "Society guideline links: Molluscum contagiosum".)

INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS — UpToDate offers two types of patient education materials, "The Basics" and "Beyond the Basics." The Basics patient education pieces are written in plain language, at the 5th to 6th grade reading level, and they answer the four or five key questions a patient might have about a given condition. These articles are best for patients who want a general overview and who prefer short, easy-to-read materials. Beyond the Basics patient education pieces are longer, more sophisticated, and more detailed. These articles are written at the 10th to 12th grade reading level and are best for patients who want in-depth information and are comfortable with some medical jargon.

Here are the patient education articles that are relevant to this topic. We encourage you to print or e-mail these topics to your patients. (You can also locate patient education articles on a variety of subjects by searching on "patient info" and the keyword(s) of interest.)

Beyond the Basics topics (see "Patient education: Molluscum contagiosum (Beyond the Basics)")

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Etiology – Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) is a poxvirus that causes localized skin infections. (See 'Virology' above.)

Epidemiology and transmission – Molluscum contagiosum is commonly seen in children but can also occur in adults. The virus is transmitted through direct skin contact or fomites. Molluscum contagiosum infection in the genital region may result from transmission during sexual activity. (See 'Epidemiology' above and 'Transmission' above.)

The incubation period for molluscum contagiosum is uncertain but has been estimated to be between two and six weeks. (See 'Transmission' above.)

Clinical features – Molluscum contagiosum most commonly presents as single or multiple small, skin-colored papules with central umbilication (picture 1A-G). Immunosuppressed individuals have an increased risk for larger lesions and more widespread disease (picture 3A-B). (See 'Clinical features' above.)

Diagnosis – The diagnosis of molluscum contagiosum typically is based upon the clinical appearance of skin lesions. Biopsy can confirm the diagnosis when necessary. Histopathologic examination of a lesion of molluscum contagiosum reveals eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion bodies within keratinocytes (picture 7). (See 'Diagnosis' above.)

Differential diagnosis – Skin lesions in other disorders may resemble molluscum contagiosum. In immunosuppressed patients, skin lesions due to cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, or Talaromyces marneffei (formerly Penicillium marneffei) infection may resemble molluscum. During the global outbreak of mpox (monkeypox), monkeypox virus infection should be considered. (See 'Differential diagnosis' above.)

Decision to treat – Molluscum contagiosum infection is usually self-limited in immunocompetent individuals, and electing not to treat is a satisfactory option. In general, molluscum in the genital region should be treated due to the potential for sexual transmission. (See 'Overview of management' above.)

Inflammation of molluscum is common and can be a sign of impending regression. Inflammation should not be mistaken for bacterial infection. (See 'Inflamed lesions' above.)

Treatment – High-quality data on the efficacy of treatments for molluscum contagiosum are limited:

Preferred treatments – When a trial of treatment is desired, we suggest the use of cryotherapy, curettage, cantharidin, or podophyllotoxin over other therapies (Grade 2B). The use of cantharidin should be avoided in the genital area. The efficacy and safety of podophyllotoxin for molluscum contagiosum in children has not been definitively established. (See 'First-line therapies' above.)

Prominent hypopigmentation may result from treatment with cryotherapy in patients with dark skin. The risks and benefits of cryotherapy should be considered carefully in these patients. (See 'Cryotherapy' above.)

Other treatments Imiquimod, potassium hydroxide (KOH), salicylic acid, and topical retinoids have also been used for the treatment of molluscum contagiosum. However, data in support of the efficacy of these treatments are insufficient for a recommendation for the routine use of these therapies. (See 'Other interventions' above.)

The efficacy of cimetidine for molluscum contagiosum is uncertain. Cimetidine should not be used as a first-line therapy for molluscum contagiosum. (See 'Oral cimetidine' above.)

Immunocompromised patients – Immunocompromised patients are at risk for extensive and persistent disease. Improvement in molluscum contagiosum may occur in patients with HIV infection after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy. (See 'Immunocompromised patients' above.)

Return to school – Children with molluscum contagiosum should not be excluded from daycare or school. Lesions should be covered with clothing or a bandage to reduce the risk of transmission to others. (See 'School and sports' above.)

  1. Zorec TM, Kutnjak D, Hošnjak L, et al. New Insights into the Evolutionary and Genomic Landscape of Molluscum Contagiosum Virus (MCV) based on Nine MCV1 and Six MCV2 Complete Genome Sequences. Viruses 2018; 10.
  2. Fife KH, Whitfeld M, Faust H, et al. Growth of molluscum contagiosum virus in a human foreskin xenograft model. Virology 1996; 226:95.
  3. Senkevich TG, Bugert JJ, Sisler JR, et al. Genome sequence of a human tumorigenic poxvirus: prediction of specific host response-evasion genes. Science 1996; 273:813.
  4. Senkevich TG, Koonin EV, Bugert JJ, et al. The genome of molluscum contagiosum virus: analysis and comparison with other poxviruses. Virology 1997; 233:19.
  5. Damon I, Murphy PM, Moss B. Broad spectrum chemokine antagonistic activity of a human poxvirus chemokine homolog. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1998; 95:6403.
  6. Senkevich TG, Moss B. Domain structure, intracellular trafficking, and beta2-microglobulin binding of a major histocompatibility complex class I homolog encoded by molluscum contagiosum virus. Virology 1998; 250:397.
  7. Shisler JL, Senkevich TG, Berry MJ, Moss B. Ultraviolet-induced cell death blocked by a selenoprotein from a human dermatotropic poxvirus. Science 1998; 279:102.
  8. Chen X, Anstey AV, Bugert JJ. Molluscum contagiosum virus infection. Lancet Infect Dis 2013; 13:877.
  9. Randall CM, Shisler JL. Molluscum contagiosum virus: persistence pays off. Future Virol 2013; 8:561.
  10. Harvey IB, Wang X, Fremont DH. Molluscum contagiosum virus MC80 sabotages MHC-I antigen presentation by targeting tapasin for ER-associated degradation. PLoS Pathog 2019; 15:e1007711.
  11. Dohil MA, Lin P, Lee J, et al. The epidemiology of molluscum contagiosum in children. J Am Acad Dermatol 2006; 54:47.
  12. Konya J, Thompson CH. Molluscum contagiosum virus: antibody responses in persons with clinical lesions and seroepidemiology in a representative Australian population. J Infect Dis 1999; 179:701.
  13. Koopman RJ, van Merriënboer FC, Vreden SG, Dolmans WM. Molluscum contagiosum; a marker for advanced HIV infection. Br J Dermatol 1992; 126:528.
  14. Calista D, Boschini A, Landi G. Resolution of disseminated molluscum contagiosum with Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) in patients with AIDS. Eur J Dermatol 1999; 9:211.
  15. Zhang Q, Davis JC, Lamborn IT, et al. Combined immunodeficiency associated with DOCK8 mutations. N Engl J Med 2009; 361:2046.
  16. Berger EM, Orlow SJ, Patel RR, Schaffer JV. Experience with molluscum contagiosum and associated inflammatory reactions in a pediatric dermatology practice: the bump that rashes. Arch Dermatol 2012; 148:1257.
  17. Hayashida S, Furusho N, Uchi H, et al. Are lifetime prevalence of impetigo, molluscum and herpes infection really increased in children having atopic dermatitis? J Dermatol Sci 2010; 60:173.
  18. Braue A, Ross G, Varigos G, Kelly H. Epidemiology and impact of childhood molluscum contagiosum: a case series and critical review of the literature. Pediatr Dermatol 2005; 22:287.
  19. Brown J, Janniger CK, Schwartz RA, Silverberg NB. Childhood molluscum contagiosum. Int J Dermatol 2006; 45:93.
  20. Schornack MM, Siemsen DW, Bradley EA, et al. Ocular manifestations of molluscum contagiosum. Clin Exp Optom 2006; 89:390.
  21. Fornatora ML, Reich RF, Gray RG, Freedman PD. Intraoral molluscum contagiosum: a report of a case and a review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2001; 92:318.
  22. Osio A, Deslandes E, Saada V, et al. Clinical characteristics of molluscum contagiosum in children in a private dermatology practice in the greater Paris area, France: a prospective study in 661 patients. Dermatology 2011; 222:314.
  23. Netchiporouk E, Cohen BA. Recognizing and managing eczematous id reactions to molluscum contagiosum virus in children. Pediatrics 2012; 129:e1072.
  24. Butala N, Siegfried E, Weissler A. Molluscum BOTE sign: a predictor of imminent resolution. Pediatrics 2013; 131:e1650.
  25. Cotell SL, Roholt NS. Images in clinical medicine. Molluscum contagiosum in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med 1998; 338:888.
  26. Haliasos EC, Kerner M, Jaimes-Lopez N, et al. Dermoscopy for the pediatric dermatologist part I: dermoscopy of pediatric infectious and inflammatory skin lesions and hair disorders. Pediatr Dermatol 2013; 30:163.
  27. Morales A, Puig S, Malvehy J, Zaballos P. Dermoscopy of molluscum contagiosum. Arch Dermatol 2005; 141:1644.
  28. Ianhez M, Cestari Sda C, Enokihara MY, Seize MB. Dermoscopic patterns of molluscum contagiosum: a study of 211 lesions confirmed by histopathology. An Bras Dermatol 2011; 86:74.
  29. Smith KJ, Skelton HG 3rd, Yeager J, et al. Molluscum contagiosum. Ultrastructural evidence for its presence in skin adjacent to clinical lesions in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Military Medical Consortium for Applied Retroviral Research. Arch Dermatol 1992; 128:223.
  30. Blanco P, Viallard JF, Beylot-Barry M, et al. Cutaneous cryptococcosis resembling molluscum contagiosum in a patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Clin Infect Dis 1999; 29:683.
  31. Lee R, Schwartz RA. Pediatric molluscum contagiosum: reflections on the last challenging poxvirus infection, Part 1. Cutis 2010; 86:230.
  32. Basdag H, Rainer BM, Cohen BA. Molluscum contagiosum: to treat or not to treat? Experience with 170 children in an outpatient clinic setting in the northeastern United States. Pediatr Dermatol 2015; 32:353.
  33. van der Wouden JC, van der Sande R, Kruithof EJ, et al. Interventions for cutaneous molluscum contagiosum. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017; 5:CD004767.
  34. Al-Mutairi N, Al-Doukhi A, Al-Farag S, Al-Haddad A. Comparative study on the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of imiquimod 5% cream versus cryotherapy for molluscum contagiosum in children. Pediatr Dermatol 2010; 27:388.
  35. Hanna D, Hatami A, Powell J, et al. A prospective randomized trial comparing the efficacy and adverse effects of four recognized treatments of molluscum contagiosum in children. Pediatr Dermatol 2006; 23:574.
  36. Harel A, Kutz AM, Hadj-Rabia S, Mashiah J. To Treat Molluscum Contagiosum or Not-Curettage: An Effective, Well-Accepted Treatment Modality. Pediatr Dermatol 2016; 33:640.
  37. Simonart T, De Maertelaer V. Curettage treatment for molluscum contagiosum: a follow-up survey study. Br J Dermatol 2008; 159:1144.
  38. Coloe J, Morrell DS. Cantharidin use among pediatric dermatologists in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum. Pediatr Dermatol 2009; 26:405.
  39. Guzman AK, Schairer DO, Garelik JL, Cohen SR. Safety and efficacy of topical cantharidin for the treatment of pediatric molluscum contagiosum: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial. Int J Dermatol 2018; 57:1001.
  40. Silverberg NB, Sidbury R, Mancini AJ. Childhood molluscum contagiosum: experience with cantharidin therapy in 300 patients. J Am Acad Dermatol 2000; 43:503.
  41. Eichenfield LF, Siegfried E, Kwong P, et al. Pooled Results of Two Randomized Phase III Trials Evaluating VP-102, a Drug-Device Combination Product Containing Cantharidin 0.7% (w/v) for the Treatment of Molluscum Contagiosum. Am J Clin Dermatol 2021; 22:257.
  42. Piggott C, Friedlander SF, Tom W. Poxvirus infections. In: Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine, 8th ed, Goldsmith LA, Katz, SI, Gilchrest BA, et al (Eds), McGraw-Hill, 2012. Vol 2, p.2402.
  43. Syed TA, Lundin S, Ahmad M. Topical 0.3% and 0.5% podophyllotoxin cream for self-treatment of molluscum contagiosum in males. A placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Dermatology 1994; 189:65.
  44. Arican O. Topical treatment of molluscum contagiosum with imiquimod 5% cream in Turkish children. Pediatr Int 2006; 48:403.
  45. Liota E, Smith KJ, Buckley R, et al. Imiquimod therapy for molluscum contagiosum. J Cutan Med Surg 2000; 4:76.
  46. Skinner RB Jr. Treatment of molluscum contagiosum with imiquimod 5% cream. J Am Acad Dermatol 2002; 47:S221.
  47. Aldara (imiquimod 5% cream). US Food and Drug Administration clinical review. https://www.fda.gov/files/drugs/published/N20-723S020-Imiquimod-Clinical-BPCA.pdf (Accessed on January 17, 2023).
  48. Theos AU, Cummins R, Silverberg NB, Paller AS. Effectiveness of imiquimod cream 5% for treating childhood molluscum contagiosum in a double-blind, randomized pilot trial. Cutis 2004; 74:134.
  49. Myhre PE, Levy ML, Eichenfield LF, et al. Pharmacokinetics and safety of imiquimod 5% cream in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum in children. Pediatr Dermatol 2008; 25:88.
  50. Short KA, Fuller LC, Higgins EM. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the use of topical 10% potassium hydroxide solution in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum. Pediatr Dermatol 2006; 23:279.
  51. Romiti R, Ribeiro AP, Grinblat BM, et al. Treatment of molluscum contagiosum with potassium hydroxide: a clinical approach in 35 children. Pediatr Dermatol 1999; 16:228.
  52. Romiti R, Ribeiro AP, Romiti N. Evaluation of the effectiveness of 5% potassium hydroxide for the treatment of molluscum contagiosum. Pediatr Dermatol 2000; 17:495.
  53. Giner-Soriano M, Teixidó C, Marsal JR, et al. Randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial on efficacy and safety of topical 10% Potassium hydroxide for molluscum contagiosum treatment in children. J Dermatolog Treat 2019; 30:750.
  54. Teixidó C, Díez O, Marsal JR, et al. Efficacy and safety of topical application of 15% and 10% potassium hydroxide for the treatment of Molluscum contagiosum. Pediatr Dermatol 2018; 35:336.
  55. Metkar A, Pande S, Khopkar U. An open, nonrandomized, comparative study of imiquimod 5% cream versus 10% potassium hydroxide solution in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2008; 74:614.
  56. Seo SH, Chin HW, Jeong DW, Sung HW. An open, randomized, comparative clinical and histological study of imiquimod 5% cream versus 10% potassium hydroxide solution in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum. Ann Dermatol 2010; 22:156.
  57. Handjani F, Behazin E, Sadati MS. Comparison of 10% potassium hydroxide solution versus cryotherapy in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum: an open randomized clinical trial. J Dermatolog Treat 2014; 25:249.
  58. Ormerod AD, White MI, Shah SA, Benjamin N. Molluscum contagiosum effectively treated with a topical acidified nitrite, nitric oxide liberating cream. Br J Dermatol 1999; 141:1051.
  59. Ohkuma M. Molluscum contagiosum treated with iodine solution and salicylic acid plaster. Int J Dermatol 1990; 29:443.
  60. Papa CM, Berger RS. Venereal herpes-like molluscum contagiosum: treatment with tretinoin. Cutis 1976; 18:537.
  61. Erdmann SM, Rübben A, Frank J, Poblete-Gutiérrez P. [Mollusca contagiosa in an infant with atopic eczema. A therapeutic challenge]. Hautarzt 2004; 55:991.
  62. Scheinfeld N. Treatment of molluscum contagiosum: a brief review and discussion of a case successfully treated with adapelene. Dermatol Online J 2007; 13:15.
  63. Lin HY, Linn G, Liu CB, et al. An immunocompromised woman with severe molluscum contagiosum that responded well to topical imiquimod: a case report and literature review. J Low Genit Tract Dis 2010; 14:134.
  64. Lee R, Schwartz RA. Pediatric molluscum contagiosum: reflections on the last challenging poxvirus infection, Part 2. Cutis 2010; 86:287.
  65. Browning JC, Enloe C, Cartwright M, et al. Efficacy and Safety of Topical Nitric Oxide-Releasing Berdazimer Gel in Patients With Molluscum Contagiosum: A Phase 3 Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Dermatol 2022; 158:871.
  66. Niizeki K, Hashimoto K. Treatment of molluscum contagiosum with silver nitrate paste. Pediatr Dermatol 1999; 16:395.
  67. Weller R, O'Callaghan CJ, MacSween RM, White MI. Scarring in Molluscum contagiosum: comparison of physical expression and phenol ablation. BMJ 1999; 319:1540.
  68. Tyring SK. Molluscum contagiosum: the importance of early diagnosis and treatment. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003; 189:S12.
  69. Garrett SJ, Robinson JK, Roenigk HH Jr. Trichloroacetic acid peel of molluscum contagiosum in immunocompromised patients. J Dermatol Surg Oncol 1992; 18:855.
  70. Binder B, Weger W, Komericki P, Kopera D. Treatment of molluscum contagiosum with a pulsed dye laser: Pilot study with 19 children. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2008; 6:121.
  71. Chatproedprai S, Suwannakarn K, Wananukul S, et al. Efficacy of pulsed dyed laser (585 nm) in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum subtype 1. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2007; 38:849.
  72. Michel JL. Treatment of molluscum contagiosum with 585 nm collagen remodeling pulsed dye laser. Eur J Dermatol 2004; 14:103.
  73. Hancox JG, Jackson J, McCagh S. Treatment of molluscum contagiosum with the pulsed dye laser over a 28-month period. Cutis 2003; 71:414.
  74. Nehal KS, Sarnoff DS, Gotkin RH, Friedman-Kien A. Pulsed dye laser treatment of molluscum contagiosum in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Dermatol Surg 1998; 24:533.
  75. Hindson C, Cotterill J. Treatment of molluscum contagiosum with the pulsed tuneable dye laser. Clin Exp Dermatol 1997; 22:255.
  76. Hughes PS. Treatment of molluscum contagiosum with the 585-nm pulsed dye laser. Dermatol Surg 1998; 24:229.
  77. Dabis R, Rosbotham J, Jones L, et al. Potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser treatment for molluscum contagiosum. J Dermatolog Treat 2006; 17:45.
  78. Amstey MS, Trombetta GC. Laser therapy for vulvar molluscum contagiosum infection. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1985; 153:800.
  79. Gross G, Roussaki A, Brzoska J. Recalcitrant molluscum contagiosum in a patient with AIDS successfully treated by a combination of CO2-laser and natural interferon beta gel. Acta Derm Venereol 1998; 78:309.
  80. Kakourou T, Zachariades A, Anastasiou T, et al. Molluscum contagiosum in Greek children: a case series. Int J Dermatol 2005; 44:221.
  81. Godse K. Needling in molluscum contagiosum. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2006; 20:1138.
  82. Maronn M, Salm C, Lyon V, Galbraith S. One-year experience with candida antigen immunotherapy for warts and molluscum. Pediatr Dermatol 2008; 25:189.
  83. Bard S, Shiman MI, Bellman B, Connelly EA. Treatment of facial molluscum contagiosum with trichloroacetic acid. Pediatr Dermatol 2009; 26:425.
  84. Gao YL, Gao XH, Qi RQ, et al. Clinical evaluation of local hyperthermia at 44 °C for molluscum contagiosum: pilot study with 21 patients. Br J Dermatol 2017; 176:809.
  85. Cunningham BB, Paller AS, Garzon M. Inefficacy of oral cimetidine for nonatopic children with molluscum contagiosum. Pediatr Dermatol 1998; 15:71.
  86. Dohil M, Prendiville JS. Treatment of molluscum contagiosum with oral cimetidine: clinical experience in 13 patients. Pediatr Dermatol 1996; 13:310.
  87. Strauss RM, Doyle EL, Mohsen AH, Green ST. Successful treatment of molluscum contagiosum with topical imiquimod in a severely immunocompromised HIV-positive patient. Int J STD AIDS 2001; 12:264.
  88. Brown CW Jr, O'Donoghue M, Moore J, Tharp M. Recalcitrant molluscum contagiosum in an HIV-afflicted male treated successfully with topical imiquimod. Cutis 2000; 65:363.
  89. Gardner LS, Ormond PJ. Treatment of multiple giant molluscum contagiosum in a renal transplant patient with imiquimod 5% cream. Clin Exp Dermatol 2006; 31:452.
  90. Ibarra V, Blanco JR, Oteo JA, Rosel L. Efficacy of cidofovir in the treatment of recalcitrant molluscum contagiosum in an AIDS patient. Acta Derm Venereol 2000; 80:315.
  91. Meadows KP, Tyring SK, Pavia AT, Rallis TM. Resolution of recalcitrant molluscum contagiosum virus lesions in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients treated with cidofovir. Arch Dermatol 1997; 133:987.
  92. Erickson C, Driscoll M, Gaspari A. Efficacy of intravenous cidofovir in the treatment of giant molluscum contagiosum in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus. Arch Dermatol 2011; 147:652.
  93. Zabawski EJ Jr, Cockerell CJ. Topical cidofovir for molluscum contagiosum in children. Pediatr Dermatol 1999; 16:414.
  94. Baxter KF, Highet AS. Topical cidofovir and cryotherapy--combination treatment for recalcitrant molluscum contagiosum in a patient with HIV infection. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2004; 18:230.
  95. Toro JR, Wood LV, Patel NK, Turner ML. Topical cidofovir: a novel treatment for recalcitrant molluscum contagiosum in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1. Arch Dermatol 2000; 136:983.
  96. Bachmeyer C, Moguelet P, Baud F, Lescure FX. Efflorescence of facial molluscum contagiosum as a manifestation of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in a patient with AIDS. Eur J Dermatol 2009; 19:257.
  97. Hicks CB, Myers SA, Giner J. Resolution of intractable molluscum contagiosum in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient after institution of antiretroviral therapy with ritonavir. Clin Infect Dis 1997; 24:1023.
  98. Siddiqui N, Mansfield BS, Olmesdahl NP, et al. A Severe Case of Molluscum Contagiosum Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in a Patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Eur J Case Rep Intern Med 2022; 9:003115.
  99. Connell CO, Oranje A, Van Gysel D, Silverberg NB. Congenital molluscum contagiosum: report of four cases and review of the literature. Pediatr Dermatol 2008; 25:553.
  100. Koning S, Bruijnzeels MA, van Suijlekom-Smit LW, van der Wouden JC. Molluscum contagiosum in Dutch general practice. Br J Gen Pract 1994; 44:417.
  101. Kyriakis KP, Palamaras I, Terzoudi S, et al. Case detection rates of molluscum contagiosum in childhood. Pediatr Dermatol 2007; 24:198.
  102. Edwards S, Boffa MJ, Janier M, et al. 2020 European guideline on the management of genital molluscum contagiosum. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2021; 35:17.
Topic 4033 Version 26.0

References

آیا می خواهید مدیلیب را به صفحه اصلی خود اضافه کنید؟