ﺑﺎﺯﮔﺸﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻗﺒﻠﯽ
خرید پکیج
تعداد آیتم قابل مشاهده باقیمانده : 3 مورد
نسخه الکترونیک
medimedia.ir

Patient education: Measles (The Basics)

Patient education: Measles (The Basics)

What is measles? — This is an infection that can cause a rash, fever, and cough. It is caused by infection with the measles virus. This virus spreads very easily from person to person.

There is a vaccine that keeps people from getting measles. It is called the MMR vaccine. It protects against 3 different infections: measles, mumps, and rubella. The vaccine comes in a shot.

People who are at risk for measles include:

Children too young to get a measles shot

People who have never had a measles shot

People who did not get a second measles shot

People who got a shot that did not work well

Going to countries where the measles vaccine is not common, or being around people from these countries, can raise a person's risk of getting measles. Even in places where the vaccine is easy to get, the risk of measles goes up if lots of people choose not to get the vaccine. This has led to an increase in measles cases in certain parts of the US.

Measles can cause long-term problems with the lungs, ears, or brain. These problems can be dangerous. People can die from measles and the problems it causes.

Some people have a higher risk of serious problems from measles. They include:

People with HIV infection or cancer

Pregnant people

People who do not get enough food or vitamins

Babies

Very old people

What are the symptoms of measles? — The first symptoms can include:

Fever up to 104°F (40°C)

Feeling sick, like with a cold

Loss of appetite

Spots in the mouth – These can look like grains of salt.

After the first symptoms, many people have:

Red, runny eyes. The eyes might also be extra sensitive to bright light.

Sneezing and coughing

A red rash that starts on the face and spreads to the body (picture 1). The spots in the rash can form red patches.

A sore throat

Most people start feeling better about 2 days after the rash starts. After 3 or 4 days, the rash starts to turn brown and go away. The skin might peel or flake off, like after a sunburn. Many people have a cough for 1 or 2 weeks after the rash goes away.

Some people who get measles have other symptoms, such as a headache, chest pain, or breathing problems.

How does measles spread? — If you have not had measles or the MMR vaccine, you can catch measles from an infected person. This can happen if you are around an infected person or go somewhere an infected person has been.

A person with measles can start spreading it about 5 days before they get a rash. It can spread for about 4 days after the rash is gone.

Should I call the doctor if I think that my child or I have measles? — Yes. If you or your child has a fever and rash, call the doctor or nurse. They can ask questions and tell you what to do next. Don't go to the doctor's office without calling first. Measles spreads easily, so you could give it to other people at the doctor's office.

What if I was near someone with measles? — Call your doctor or nurse. It might still be possible to avoid getting sick. If you get it soon enough, the vaccine can stop measles or make it less serious. People who cannot get the vaccine can take a medicine that can help keep them from getting sick.

Is there a test for measles? — Yes. The doctor or nurse can do blood tests. But these tests might not be needed. A doctor or nurse can often tell if a person has measles by doing an exam and learning about the symptoms.

How is measles treated? — For most people, there is no specific treatment. If you or your child have measles, you can:

Rest.

Drink plenty of fluids.

Take acetaminophen (sample brand name: Tylenol) to help with fever and aches.

Do not give aspirin or medicines that contain aspirin to children younger than 18. In children, aspirin can cause a serious problem called Reye syndrome.

Doctors give vitamin A to some children with measles. If your child needs treatment in the hospital, or has another health condition besides measles, the doctor might give vitamin A.

If measles causes other health problems, such as ear infections, doctors can usually treat them. But a few health problems from measles can be life-threatening.

Can measles be prevented? — Yes. The MMR vaccine prevents infection.

All children should get the MMR vaccine when they are 12 to 15 months old. Then, they need a second shot when they are 4 to 6 years old. A child should have the second shot before they start school. Some babies and children need to get the vaccine earlier than usual, if they:

Live in an area where there is a measles outbreak

Need to travel to an area where there is a measles outbreak

Need to travel outside of the US

Some older children and adults also need the MMR vaccine, such as:

Hospital or health care workers

Students who don't have written proof of 2 shots

Some people traveling outside of the US

In the past, some people in the US got a vaccine that did not work well. If you got a measles shot before 1968, talk to your doctor or nurse.

Some people should wait or get tested before getting the MMR vaccine. This includes people with HIV or cancer and people taking certain medicines. When healthy people get the vaccine, it helps protect the people who cannot get it.

The MMR vaccine has a small amount of gelatin and an antibiotic. If you or your child have any allergies, or had a bad reaction, to a vaccine, tell your doctor or nurse.

Does the MMR vaccine cause autism? — No. After doing many careful studies, scientists have not found any link between the MMR vaccine and autism. Many years ago, 1 study said that there was a link between autism and vaccines. But that study turned out to be false.

What if I want to get pregnant? — Make sure that your MMR vaccine is up to date. This means knowing if you got it in the past. If you are not sure, your doctor or nurse can do a blood test to check.

Getting measles when you are pregnant could cause pregnancy loss (also called a miscarriage). This is when a pregnancy ends before a person has been pregnant for 20 weeks. Or the baby could be born too early. Babies who are born early can have serious life-long health problems.

The MMR vaccine must be given before pregnancy. It is not safe during pregnancy. After you get the vaccine, wait at least 4 weeks before trying to get pregnant.

More on this topic

Patient education: Measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (The Basics)
Patient education: Vaccines for babies and children age 0 to 6 years (The Basics)
Patient education: Vaccines and pregnancy (The Basics)
Patient education: Isolation precautions (The Basics)

Patient education: Why does my child need vaccines? (Beyond the Basics)
Patient education: Vaccines for infants and children age 0 to 6 years (Beyond the Basics)
Patient education: Vaccines for adults (Beyond the Basics)

This topic retrieved from UpToDate on: Jun 02, 2024.
Disclaimer: This generalized information is a limited summary of diagnosis, treatment, and/or medication information. It is not meant to be comprehensive and should be used as a tool to help the user understand and/or assess potential diagnostic and treatment options. It does NOT include all information about conditions, treatments, medications, side effects, or risks that may apply to a specific patient. It is not intended to be medical advice or a substitute for the medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment of a health care provider based on the health care provider's examination and assessment of a patient's specific and unique circumstances. Patients must speak with a health care provider for complete information about their health, medical questions, and treatment options, including any risks or benefits regarding use of medications. This information does not endorse any treatments or medications as safe, effective, or approved for treating a specific patient. UpToDate, Inc. and its affiliates disclaim any warranty or liability relating to this information or the use thereof. The use of this information is governed by the Terms of Use, available at https://www.wolterskluwer.com/en/know/clinical-effectiveness-terms. 2024© UpToDate, Inc. and its affiliates and/or licensors. All rights reserved.
Topic 83973 Version 16.0

آیا می خواهید مدیلیب را به صفحه اصلی خود اضافه کنید؟