ﺑﺎﺯﮔﺸﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻗﺒﻠﯽ
خرید پکیج
تعداد آیتم قابل مشاهده باقیمانده : 3 مورد
نسخه الکترونیک
medimedia.ir

Patient education: Cough, runny nose, and the common cold (The Basics)

Patient education: Cough, runny nose, and the common cold (The Basics)

What causes cough, runny nose, and other symptoms of the common cold? — These symptoms are usually caused by a virus. Doctors also use the term "viral upper respiratory infection" or "viral URI." Lots of different viruses can get into your nose, mouth, throat, or airways and cause cold symptoms.

Most people get better from a cold without any lasting problems. Even so, having a cold can be uncomfortable.

What are the symptoms of the common cold? — Symptoms can include:

Sneezing

Coughing

Sniffling and runny nose

Sore throat

Chest congestion

In children, the common cold can also cause a fever. But adults do not usually get a fever when they have a cold.

Colds usually last about 3 to 7 days in adults and 10 days in children. But some people have symptoms for up to 2 weeks.

How can I tell if I have a cold or something else? — Sometimes, it can be hard to tell if you have a cold or something else. Some cold symptoms can also be caused by other illnesses, such as COVID-19, the flu, or strep throat.

There are sometimes clues that can help you tell the difference:

COVID-19 often starts out very similar to a cold, although it can also cause a fever. If you have cold symptoms and have been around someone with COVID-19, you should get a test to find out if you have it, too.

The flu is more likely to cause fever, body aches, and extreme tiredness than a cold.

Strep throat usually causes severe throat pain. It can also cause a fever and swollen glands in the neck. People with strep throat usually do not have other cold symptoms like a stuffy nose or cough.

If you think that you might have an illness other than the common cold, call your doctor or nurse. They can tell you what to do.

Can medicine help with a cold? — Usually, a cold gets better on its own and does not need treatment. Because colds are usually caused by viruses, antibiotics will not help.

If you are a teen or an adult, you can try cough and cold medicines that you can get without a prescription. These medicines might help with your symptoms. But they can't cure your cold, or help you get well faster.

If you decide to try non-prescription cold medicines:

Read the directions on the label, and follow them carefully.

Do not combine 2 or more medicines that have acetaminophen in them. If you take too much acetaminophen, it can damage your liver.

If you have a heart condition, have high blood pressure, or take any prescription medicines, talk to your doctor or pharmacist before taking cold medicine. They can tell you which medicines are safe.

Some medicines are not safe for children:

If your child is younger than 6, do not give them any cold medicines. These medicines are not safe for young children. Even if your child is older than 6, cough and cold medicines are unlikely to help.

Never give aspirin to any child younger than 18 years old. In children, aspirin can cause a life-threatening condition called Reye syndrome.

When giving your child acetaminophen or other non-prescription medicines, never give more than the recommended dose.

Is there anything I can do on my own to feel better? — Yes. You can:

Get plenty of rest.

Drink lots of fluids (water, juice, or broth) to stay hydrated. This will help replace any fluids lost if you have a runny nose or sweating from a fever. Warm tea or soup can help soothe a sore throat.

If the air in your home feels dry, use a cool-mist humidifier. This can help a stuffy nose and make it easier to breathe.

Use saline nose drops or spray to relieve stuffiness.

Avoid smoking, and stay away from places where people are smoking.

Can the common cold lead to more serious problems? — In some cases, yes. In some people, having a cold can lead to:

Ear infections

Worse asthma symptoms

Sinus infections

Pneumonia or bronchitis (infections of the lungs)

Can colds be prevented? — There are some things you can do to keep germs from spreading:

Wash your hands with soap and water often (figure 1) – This can also help prevent the spread of other illnesses like the flu and COVID-19.

Cover your cough – Cough into your elbow instead of your hands. Teach children to do this, too. Throw away used tissues right away.

Clean surfaces – The germs that cause the common cold can live on tables, door handles, and other surfaces for at least 2 hours.

Stay home if you are sick – When you do need to be around other people, consider wearing a face mask until you are feeling better.

When should I call the doctor? — Contact your doctor or nurse if you:

Lose your sense of taste or smell

Have a fever of more than 100.4°F (38°C) that comes with shaking chills, loss of appetite, or trouble breathing

Have a very bad sore throat

Have a fever and also have lung disease, such as emphysema or asthma

Have a cough that lasts longer than 10 days or starts getting worse

Have chest pain when you cough or breathe deeply, have trouble breathing, or cough up blood

If you are older than 65, or if you have any chronic medical conditions such as diabetes, contact your doctor or nurse any time you get a long-lasting cough.

Take your child to the emergency department if they:

Become confused or stop responding to you

Have trouble breathing or have to work hard to breathe

Contact your child's doctor or nurse if the child:

Loses their sense of taste or smell or won't eat foods that they ate before

Has a very bad sore throat

Refuses to drink anything for a long time

Is younger than 4 months

Has a fever and is not acting like themselves

Has a cough that lasts for more than 2 weeks and is not getting any better or is getting worse

Has a stuffed or runny nose that gets worse or does not get any better after 10 days

Has red eyes or yellow goop coming out of their eyes

Has ear pain, pulls at their ears, or shows other signs of having an ear infection

More on this topic

Patient education: Upper respiratory infection in adults – Discharge instructions (The Basics)
Patient education: COVID-19 overview (The Basics)
Patient education: Flu (The Basics)
Patient education: Sore throat in adults (The Basics)
Patient education: Fever in children (The Basics)
Patient education: What you should know about vaccines (The Basics)
Patient education: Giving your child over-the-counter medicines (The Basics)
Patient education: Ear infections in adults (The Basics)
Patient education: Cough in adults (The Basics)
Patient education: Cough in children (The Basics)
Patient education: Coughing up blood (The Basics)
Patient education: What you should know about antibiotics (The Basics)
Patient education: How to use nasal medicines (The Basics)
Patient education: How to wash your hands (The Basics)
Patient education: Lowering the risk of spreading infection (The Basics)

Patient education: The common cold in adults (Beyond the Basics)
Patient education: The common cold in children (Beyond the Basics)
Patient education: Allergic rhinitis (Beyond the Basics)

This topic retrieved from UpToDate on: Jun 02, 2024.
Disclaimer: This generalized information is a limited summary of diagnosis, treatment, and/or medication information. It is not meant to be comprehensive and should be used as a tool to help the user understand and/or assess potential diagnostic and treatment options. It does NOT include all information about conditions, treatments, medications, side effects, or risks that may apply to a specific patient. It is not intended to be medical advice or a substitute for the medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment of a health care provider based on the health care provider's examination and assessment of a patient's specific and unique circumstances. Patients must speak with a health care provider for complete information about their health, medical questions, and treatment options, including any risks or benefits regarding use of medications. This information does not endorse any treatments or medications as safe, effective, or approved for treating a specific patient. UpToDate, Inc. and its affiliates disclaim any warranty or liability relating to this information or the use thereof. The use of this information is governed by the Terms of Use, available at https://www.wolterskluwer.com/en/know/clinical-effectiveness-terms. 2024© UpToDate, Inc. and its affiliates and/or licensors. All rights reserved.
Topic 15367 Version 30.0

آیا می خواهید مدیلیب را به صفحه اصلی خود اضافه کنید؟