ﺑﺎﺯﮔﺸﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻗﺒﻠﯽ
خرید پکیج
تعداد آیتم قابل مشاهده باقیمانده : 3 مورد
نسخه الکترونیک
medimedia.ir

Albuterol (salbutamol): Drug information

Albuterol (salbutamol): Drug information
(For additional information see "Albuterol (salbutamol): Patient drug information" and see "Albuterol (salbutamol): Pediatric drug information")

For abbreviations, symbols, and age group definitions used in Lexicomp (show table)
Brand Names: US
  • ProAir Digihaler;
  • ProAir HFA [DSC];
  • ProAir RespiClick;
  • Proventil HFA;
  • Ventolin HFA
Brand Names: Canada
  • Airomir;
  • APO-Salbutamol HFA;
  • DOM-Salbutamol;
  • PMS-Salbutamol;
  • TEVA-Salbutamol;
  • TEVA-Salbutamol HFA;
  • Ventolin;
  • Ventolin Diskus;
  • Ventolin HFA;
  • Ventolin PF [DSC]
Pharmacologic Category
  • Beta2 Agonist
Dosing: Adult

Dosage guidance:

Dosage form information: Unless otherwise noted, dosing for the metered-dose inhaler (MDI) and dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations is based on US products (90 mcg/actuation). A valved holding chamber (spacer) is recommended for use with an MDI. A DPI does not require use of a valved holding chamber.

Clinical considerations: Oral formulations of albuterol (eg, tablet, syrup) are less effective than inhaled forms for bronchoconstriction and more likely to cause adrenergic adverse effects (Ref).

Asthma

Asthma:

Acute exacerbation:

Mild to moderate exacerbations (initial home management): Note: Patients with worsening symptoms despite initial care should seek immediate medical attention (Ref).

Metered-dose inhaler or dry powder inhaler (90 mcg/actuation): Oral inhalation: 2 to 4 inhalations every 20 minutes for 3 doses; if good response, can lengthen interval to every 3 to 4 hours as needed; if incomplete response, can lengthen interval to every 1 to 3 hours as needed (Ref).

Nebulization solution: Oral inhalation: 2.5 mg every 20 minutes for 3 doses; if good response, can lengthen interval to every 3 to 4 hours as needed; if incomplete response, can lengthen interval to every 1 to 3 hours as needed (Ref).

Moderate to severe exacerbations (management in primary or acute care settings): Note: For severe exacerbations, albuterol is used in combination with an inhaled short-acting muscarinic antagonist, and nebulized treatments are generally preferred (Ref).

Metered-dose inhaler or dry powder inhaler (90 mcg/actuation): Oral inhalation: 4 to 10 inhalations every 20 minutes for 3 doses, then taper as tolerated (eg, to 2 to 4 inhalations every 1 to 4 hours as needed) (Ref). High doses are typically administered in a monitored setting.

Nebulization solution: Oral inhalation: 2.5 to 5 mg every 20 minutes for 3 doses, then taper as tolerated (eg, to 2.5 to 5 mg every 1 to 4 hours as needed). For critically ill patients, 10 to 15 mg may be administered by continuous nebulization over 1 hour via special apparatus (Ref).

IV continuous infusion [Canadian product]: Note: Reserve intravenous beta-agonists for those patients in whom inhaled therapy cannot be used reliably (Ref). Initial: 5 mcg/minute; may increase up to 10 to 20 mcg/minute at 15- to 30-minute intervals, if needed.

Intermittent symptom relief (alternative agent): Note: Use on an as-needed basis (reliever therapy) rather than regularly scheduled. For maintenance therapy, additional controller agents should be used (Ref).

Nebulized therapy may be preferable for patients who have more severe symptoms or who cannot effectively use an inhaler (Ref).

Metered-dose inhaler or dry powder inhaler (90 mcg/actuation): Oral inhalation: 2 inhalations every 4 to 6 hours as needed (Ref); some experts recommend up to 4 inhalations every 4 to 6 hours for moderate to severe symptoms (Ref).

Canadian formulation: Ventolin Diskus [Canadian product]: DPI (200 mcg/inhalation): Oral inhalation: 1 inhalation every 4 to 6 hours as needed.

Nebulization solution: Oral inhalation: 2.5 mg every 4 to 6 hours as needed (Ref).

Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (prevention):

Metered-dose inhaler or dry powder inhaler (90 mcg/actuation): Oral inhalation: 2 inhalations 5 to 20 minutes prior to exercise (Ref).

Canadian formulation: Ventolin Diskus [Canadian product]: DPI (200 mcg/inhalation): Oral inhalation: 1 inhalation 15 minutes prior to exercise.

Bronchospasm due to anaphylaxis

Bronchospasm (moderate to severe) due to anaphylaxis (adjunct to epinephrine): Note: Administer epinephrine first when treating anaphylaxis; administer albuterol for residual respiratory symptoms not responding to epinephrine. Do not use albuterol for initial or sole treatment of anaphylaxis because albuterol does not prevent or relieve upper airway edema, hypotension, or shock (Ref).

Metered-dose inhaler or dry powder inhaler (90 mcg/actuation): Oral inhalation: 2 to 3 inhalations as needed for symptom relief (Ref).

Nebulization solution: Oral inhalation: 2.5 to 5 mg; repeat as needed (Ref).

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease:

Acute exacerbation: Note: Although similar efficacy exists among formulations, some experts prefer nebulized therapy during severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations. May be combined with an inhaled short-acting muscarinic antagonist (Ref).

Metered-dose inhaler or dry powder inhaler (90 mcg/actuation): Oral inhalation: 1 to 2 inhalations every 1 hour for 2 to 3 doses, then every 2 to 4 hours, as needed; for patients requiring emergency department or hospital-based care, may increase to 4 inhalations every 1 hour for 2 to 3 doses. For patients requiring mechanical ventilation, up to 8 inhalations may be used, if needed (Ref).

Nebulization solution: Oral inhalation: 2.5 mg every 1 hour for 2 to 3 doses, then every 2 to 4 hours as needed (Ref).

Intermittent symptom relief : Note: Use for intermittent symptoms on an as-needed basis rather than regularly scheduled maintenance therapy. Typically used in combination with inhaled short-acting muscarinic antagonist; combination therapy provides greater improvement in FEV1 and symptoms over monotherapy with a short-acting beta-2 agonist (Ref).

Metered-dose inhaler or dry powder inhaler (90 mcg/actuation): Oral inhalation: 2 inhalations every 4 to 6 hours as needed (Ref).

Canadian formulation: Ventolin Diskus [Canadian product]: Dry powder inhaler (200 mcg/inhalation): Oral inhalation: 1 inhalation every 4 to 6 hours as needed.

Nebulization solution: Oral inhalation: 2.5 mg every 4 to 6 hours as needed (Ref).

Hyperkalemia

Hyperkalemia (alternative agent) (adjunct) (off-label use): Note: May use after administration of standard therapies (calcium, insulin with dextrose, and potassium removal therapy) for those with continued symptoms or serious ECG manifestations or in patients for whom dialysis is not appropriate or feasible (Ref).

Oral inhalation: Nebulization solution: 10 to 20 mg via nebulization over 10 minutes (Ref).

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy: Significant drug interactions exist, requiring dose/frequency adjustment or avoidance. Consult drug interactions database for more information.

Dosing: Kidney Impairment: Adult

There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer's labeling; use with caution. No dosage adjustment required in patients on hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, or CRRT (Ref).

Dosing: Hepatic Impairment: Adult

There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer's labeling.

Dosing: Older Adult

Oral inhalation: Refer to adult dosing.

Dosing: Pediatric

(For additional information see "Albuterol (salbutamol): Pediatric drug information")

Dosage guidance:

Dosage form information: Unless otherwise noted, dosing for the metered-dose inhaler (MDI) and dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations is based on US products (90 mcg/actuation). A valved holding chamber or spacer is recommended for use with an MDI in patients with poor technique and is the recommended medication delivery system in all patients ≤5 years of age, with the addition of a mask for patients <3 or 4 years of age or until proper technique is demonstrated (Ref). A DPI does not require use of a valved holding chamber.

Asthma

Asthma:

Note: GINA guideline dosing is based on the 100 mcg/actuation salbutamol product (not available in the United States) (Ref). Use of oral albuterol formulations (eg, tablet, syrup) for management of acute asthma or long-term daily maintenance treatment is not recommended due to delayed onset of action and risk of adverse effects; scheduled daily inhaled albuterol use is not recommended for long-term maintenance treatment (Ref). Increasing use or regular use >2 days/week for symptom control (except prevention of exercise-induced bronchospasm) indicates inadequate control and need for additional long-term control therapy (Ref).

Acute symptom relief: Note: For use as an as-needed reliever therapy for acute symptoms outside of an exacerbation. In select patients ≥4 years of age, as needed beta-agonists should be used in combination with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) by either administering as-needed albuterol immediately followed by ICS or using a combination ICS and formoterol inhaler (Ref).

MDI, DPI: 90 mcg/actuation: Note: Young children and patients with severe symptoms may have reduced inspiratory flow which may reduce drug deposition in the lung from a DPI (Ref).

Infants, Children, and Adolescents: Limited data available in ages <4 years: Oral inhalation: 2 inhalations every 4 to 6 hours as needed (Ref); 1 inhalation every 4 hours may be sufficient in some patients (Ref).

Nebulization:

Infants and Children ≤4 years: Limited data available in ages <2 years: Oral inhalation: 0.63 to 2.5 mg every 4 to 6 hours as needed (Ref).

Children >4 to <12 years: Oral inhalation: 1.25 to 5 mg every 4 to 8 hours as needed (Ref).

Children ≥12 years and Adolescents: Oral inhalation: Usual dose: 2.5 mg every 6 to 8 hours as needed (Ref). Reported range: 1.25 to 5 mg every 4 to 8 hours as needed (Ref).

Acute exacerbation: Note: Use for progressively worsening asthma symptoms not responding to as-needed reliever therapy. Beta-agonists are often used in conjunction with systemic glucocorticoids in patients with acute exacerbations.

Home management: Note: Patients with severe symptoms or worsening symptoms despite initial care should seek immediate medical attention.

MDI, DPI: 90 mcg/actuation: Note: Young children and patients with severe symptoms may have reduced inspiratory flow which may reduce drug deposition in the lung from a DPI (Ref).

Infants: Oral inhalation: 2 inhalations every 20 minutes as needed for 2 to 3 doses; patients with more severe symptoms may require up to 4 inhalations/dose (Ref); if initial response is good, lengthen dosing frequency and administer 2 to 4 inhalations every 3 to 4 hours for 24 to 48 hours (Ref).

Children and Adolescents: Oral inhalation: 2 to 4 inhalations every 20 minutes as needed for 2 to 3 doses; patients with more severe symptoms may require up to 6 inhalations/dose (Ref); if initial response is good, lengthen dosing frequency and administer 2 to 6 inhalations every 3 to 4 hours for 24 to 48 hours (Ref).

Nebulization:

Infants and Children ≤4 years: Limited data available in ages <2 years: Oral inhalation: Usual dose: 1.25 to 2.5 mg every 20 minutes for 3 doses if needed; if initial response is good, lengthen dosing frequency and administer 1.25 to 2.5 mg every 3 to 4 hours for 24 to 48 hours; reported range: 0.63 to 2.5 mg/dose (Ref).

Children >4 to <12 years: Oral inhalation: Usual dose: 2.5 to 5 mg every 20 minutes for 3 doses if needed; if initial response is good, lengthen dosing frequency and administer 2.5 to 5 mg every 3 to 4 hours for 24 to 48 hours; reported range: 1.25 to 5 mg/dose (Ref).

Children ≥12 years and Adolescents: Oral inhalation: Usual dose: 2.5 mg every 20 minutes for the first hour if needed; if initial response is good, lengthen dosing frequency and administer 2.5 mg every 3 to 4 hours for 24 to 48 hours; reported range: 1.25 to 5 mg/dose (Ref).

Primary care/acute care management:

MDI, DPI: 90 mcg/actuation: Note: Young children and patients with severe symptoms may have reduced inspiratory flow which may reduce drug deposition in the lung from a DPI (Ref).

Infants and Children <12 years: Limited data available in ages <4 years: Oral inhalation: 4 to 8 inhalations every 20 minutes for 3 doses (Ref); for patients ≥6 years of age, some experts recommend doses up to 10 inhalations/dose (Ref). Weight-band dosing may also be used by some centers; doses based on patient weight as follows: 5 to <10 kg: 4 inhalations; 10 to <20 kg: 6 inhalations; ≥20 kg: 8 inhalations; doses are administered every 20 minutes for 3 doses (Ref). After the initial hour, dose may vary from 4 to 10 inhalations every 1 to 4 hours based on patient response (Ref).

Children ≥12 years and Adolescents: Oral inhalation: 4 to 8 inhalations every 20 minutes for 3 doses (Ref); some experts recommend doses up to 10 inhalations/dose (Ref). After the initial hour, dose may vary from 4 to 10 inhalations every 1 to 4 hours based on patient response (Ref).

Nebulization: Note: Nebulization is preferred for patients who are unable to effectively use an MDI or DPI due to age, agitation, or severity of the exacerbation (Ref).

Intermittent: Infants, Children, and Adolescents: Limited data available in ages <2 years: Oral inhalation: 0.15 mg/kg/dose (minimum dose: 2.5 mg/dose; maximum dose: 5 mg/dose) every 20 minutes for 3 doses then 0.15 to 0.3 mg/kg/dose not to exceed 10 mg/dose every 1 to 4 hours as needed (Ref). Note: For severe exacerbations, addition of ipratropium may be considered if poor response to initial aggressive short-acting beta2-agonist (SABA) therapy in an acute care setting (ie, emergency department). Ipratropium has not been shown to provide further benefit (eg, after first 24 hours) once the patient is hospitalized (Ref).

Continuous nebulization: Dosing regimens variable; optimal dosage not established; consult institutional-specific protocols.

Infants and Children <12 years: Initial: 0.5 mg/kg/hour (Ref); in patients with severe exacerbations doses as high as 1 mg/kg/hour may be needed (Ref). Weight-band dosing has also been reported; doses based on patient weight have been used as follows: 5 to <10 kg: 5 to 7.5 mg/hour; 10 to <20 kg: 10 mg/hour; ≥20 kg: 15 to 20 mg/hour. Adjust dose as needed based on patient response; maximum dose: 20 mg/hour (Ref).

Children ≥12 years and Adolescents: 10 to 15 mg/hour (Ref); higher doses of up to 20 mg/hour have also been reported (Ref).

Bronchospasm, acute

Bronchospasm, acute: Note: Use for acute bronchospasm outside of asthma.

Prevention: Limited data available; optimal dose not established. Note: Administer prior to anticipated exposure to triggers (eg, bronchospastic inhaled therapies), airway clearance techniques (eg, cystic fibrosis) or in high-risk patients (eg, history of asthma, wheezing, recent upper respiratory tract infection) prior to procedures (Ref).

Infants, Children, and Adolescents:

MDI, DPI: 90 mcg/actuation: Oral inhalation: 2 to 4 inhalations administered 10 to 30 minutes prior to trigger exposure, airway clearance techniques, or procedure.

Nebulization: Oral inhalation: 2.5 mg administered 10 to 30 minutes prior to trigger exposure, airway clearance techniques, or procedure; some patients may require doses up to 5 mg based on history and individual risk factors.

Treatment: Limited data available: Note: Albuterol has been used in the treatment of bronchospasm/wheezing due to conditions such as viral illness, contrast reactions, or as adjunct to epinephrine in the treatment of anaphylaxis (Ref).

Infants, Children, and Adolescents:

MDI, DPI: 90 mcg/actuation: Oral inhalation: 2 inhalations; repeat as needed; frequency may vary and range from every 4 to 6 hours as needed up to every 20 minutes for 3 doses based on patient response; patients with history of asthma may require higher doses (ie, 5 to 10 inhalations every 20 minutes) in some situations (eg, when used as adjunct therapy in anaphylaxis).

Nebulization: Oral inhalation: 2.5 to 5 mg; repeat as needed based on clinical condition, symptoms, and response; may give as frequently as every 20 minutes for up to 3 doses or may administer continuously if needed.

Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, prevention

Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, prevention: Note: Tolerance to the protective effects of albuterol against exercise-induced bronchospasm may develop with regular daily use (Ref).

MDI, DPI: 90 mcg/actuation:

Children <4 years: Limited data available: Oral inhalation: 1 to 2 inhalations 5 to 20 minutes before exercising (Ref). Note: Pretreatment in patients <4 years of age should only be used when a specific triggering activity can be clearly identified.

Children ≥4 years and Adolescents: Oral inhalation: 2 inhalations 5 to 20 minutes before exercising (Ref); doses up to 4 inhalations have been reported (Ref).

Canadian formulation: DPI: 200 mcg/inhalation: Children ≥4 years and Adolescents: Oral inhalation: 1 inhalation 15 minutes before exercise.

Hyperkalemia

Hyperkalemia (adjunct therapy): Limited data available:

Note: Albuterol is administered to shift potassium intracellularly and may be administered concomitantly with IV insulin and dextrose infusion for additive effect (Ref). Albuterol should not be used as the sole agent for treating moderate to severe hyperkalemia; use in combination with therapies to stabilize myocardium and eliminate potassium (Ref). Use caution in patients with preexisting cardiac disorders (eg, arrhythmias) (Ref); patients should be on a cardiac monitor during administration.

Infants, Children, and Adolescents (Ref):

<25 kg: Nebulization: Oral inhalation: 2.5 mg nebulized over 10 minutes; dose may be repeated as needed.

25 to 50 kg: Nebulization: Oral inhalation: 5 mg nebulized over 10 minutes; dose may be repeated as needed.

>50 kg: Nebulization: Oral inhalation: 10 mg nebulized over 10 minutes; dose may be repeated as needed. Note: Doses as high as 20 mg have been suggested for use in adults and may be utilized for larger children and adolescents (Ref).

Bronchospasm, patients unable to use or tolerate inhaled therapy

Bronchospasm (long-term prevention), patients unable to use or tolerate inhaled therapy: Note: Oral formulations of albuterol (eg, tablet, syrup) are not recommended; use is very rare because they are less effective than inhaled forms and more likely to cause adverse effects (Ref).

Immediate-release formulation (syrup, tablets) (Ref):

Children 2 to 6 years: Oral: Initial: 0.1 mg/kg/dose (maximum dose: 2 mg/dose) 3 times daily; if desired response not achieved, gradually increase dose to 0.2 mg/kg/dose (maximum dose: 4 mg/dose) 3 times daily; maximum daily dose: 12 mg/day.

Children >6 and Adolescents ≤14 years: Oral: Initial: 2 mg 3 to 4 times daily; if desired response not achieved, gradually increase dose; maximum daily dose: 24 mg/day.

Adolescents >14 years: Oral: Initial: 2 to 4 mg 3 to 4 times daily; if desired response not achieved, gradually increase dose; maximum daily dose: 32 mg/day.

Extended-release formulation (tablets) (Ref):

Children 6 to 12 years: Oral: Initial: 4 mg every 12 hours; if control not achieved may gradually increase dose; maximum daily dose: 24 mg/day.

Adolescents: Oral: Initial: 4 to 8 mg every 12 hours; if control not achieved may gradually increase dose; maximum daily dose: 32 mg/day.

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy: Significant drug interactions exist, requiring dose/frequency adjustment or avoidance. Consult drug interactions database for more information.

Dosing: Kidney Impairment: Pediatric

There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer's labeling; use with caution when using high doses in patients with renal impairment. No dosage adjustment required, including patients on hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, or CRRT (Ref).

Dosing: Hepatic Impairment: Pediatric

There are no dosage adjustments provided in manufacturer's labeling.

Adverse Reactions (Significant): Considerations
Cardiovascular effects

Short-actingbeta-2 agonists (SABAs), such as albuterol, may cause mild tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmias (less common), QTc interval changes, and more severe cases of cardiac ischemia, heart failure, and cardiomyopathy (Ref). Swallowing-induced atrial tachyarrhythmia (SIAT) (atrial tachycardia) has rarely been reported (Ref). Supraventricular tachycardia has been reported in a neonate (Ref). In pediatric patients receiving continuous albuterol, elevated troponin-T levels have been reported, the significance of which is unknown (Ref). Stress-induced cardiomyopathy (takotsubo cardiomyopathy) has also been reported (Ref).

Mechanism: Dose-related; may be related to the pharmacologic action; beta-2 agonist effects on the heart as well as loss of beta-2 agonist selectivity at higher doses (ie, beta-1 agonist effects) (Ref). Cardiac toxicity may occur in the setting of hypoxemia, secondary to vasodilation and possible pulmonary shunting, resulting in hypotension (Ref). SIAT may be linked to triggering of adrenergic reflexes in the esophagus (Ref). Stress-induced cardiomyopathy may be due to catecholamine-induced reduction in blood flow, resulting in obstruction and secondary ischemia of the left ventricle and anterior wall (Ref).

Onset: Rapid; tachycardia may occur within 15 minutes after administration (Ref). Cardiomyopathy may occur within days of administration (Ref).

Risk factors:

• Overuse (dose and frequency) (Ref)

• Concurrent use of other sympathomimetics (Ref)

• Preexisting cardiovascular disease or predisposition to cardiovascular effects (Ref)

CNS effects

Albuterol may cause CNS effects, including (but not limited to) excitement, nervousness, tremor, anxiety, hyperactive behavior, and insomnia. Excitement, nervousness, and insomnia may occur more frequently in younger pediatric patients (2 to 6 years) versus older pediatric patients and adults (Ref). There are also isolated case reports of psychosis (Ref).

Mechanism: Dose-related; related to the pharmacologic effect (ie, adrenergic CNS stimulation) (Ref).

Onset: Rapid; psychosis occurred within 2 days of overuse in one case report (Ref).

Risk factors:

• Overuse (dose and frequency) (Ref)

Paradoxical bronchospasm

Albuterol may cause paradoxical bronchospasm with an incidence in the literature ~4% (Ref).

Mechanism: Non–dose-related; may be related to a hypersensitivity reaction or irritation to excipients in albuterol inhalers triggering airway hyperresponsiveness (Ref).

Onset: Varied; occurred within 30 minutes in one case report (Ref); has also occurred after months of therapy (Ref).

Risk factors:

• Dosage form (metered-dose inhaler and nebulizer solution) (Ref)

• Benzalkonium chloride (Ref)

• Edetate disodium (Ref)

Adverse Reactions

The following adverse drug reactions and incidences are derived from product labeling unless otherwise specified. Incidence of adverse effects is dependent upon age of patient, dose, and route of administration.

>10%:

Nervous system: Excitement (children and adolescents: 2% to 20%), nervousness (4% to 15%)

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Tremor (5% to 38%; frequency increases with age)

Respiratory: Bronchospasm (8% to 15%; exacerbation of underlying pulmonary disease), exacerbation of asthma (11% to 13%), pharyngitis (14%), rhinitis (5% to 16%), upper respiratory tract infection (5% to 21%)

1% to 10%:

Cardiovascular: Chest discomfort, chest pain (<3%), edema (<3%), extrasystoles (<3%), flushing, hypertension (1% to 3%), palpitations, tachycardia (1% to 7%) (table 1)

Albuterol: Adverse Reaction: Tachycardia

Drug (Albuterol)

Placebo

Population

Dosage Form

Number of Patients (Albuterol)

Number of Patients (Placebo)

2%

N/A

Children

Oral syrup

N/A

N/A

1%

N/A

Children, adolescents, and adults

Oral syrup

N/A

N/A

7%

<1%

N/A

HFA inhalation aerosol

193

186

2%

<1%

N/A

CFC 11/12 propelled inhaler

186

186

Dermatologic: Diaphoresis (<3%), pallor (children: 1%), skin rash (<3%), urticaria (≤2%)

Endocrine & metabolic: Diabetes mellitus (<3%), increased serum glucose (10%)

Gastrointestinal: Anorexia (children: 1%), diarrhea (<3%), dyspepsia (1% to 2%), eructation (<3%), flatulence (<3%), gastroenteritis (3%), glossitis (<3%), increased appetite (children and adolescents: 3%), nausea (2% to 10%), unpleasant taste (inhalation site: 4%), viral gastroenteritis (1% to 3%), vomiting (3% to 7%), xerostomia (<3%)

Genitourinary: Difficulty in micturition, urinary tract infection (≤3%)

Hematologic & oncologic: Decreased hematocrit (7%), decreased hemoglobin (7%), decreased white blood cell count (4%), lymphadenopathy (3%)

Hepatic: Increased serum alanine aminotransferase (5%), increased serum aspartate aminotransferase (4%)

Hypersensitivity: Hypersensitivity reaction (3% to 6%)

Infection: Cold symptoms (3%), infection (<3%; skin/appendage: ≤2%)

Local: Application site reaction (HFA inhaler: 6%)

Nervous system: Anxiety (<3%), ataxia (<3%), depression (<3%), dizziness (<7%), drowsiness (<3%), emotional lability (1%), fatigue (1%), headache (3% to 7%), hyperactive behavior (children and adolescents: 2%), insomnia (1% to 3%), malaise (2%), migraine (≤2%), pain (2%), restlessness, rigors (<3%), shakiness (children and adolescents: 9%), vertigo, voice disorder (<3%)

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Back pain (2% to 4%), hyperkinetic muscle activity (≤4%), lower limb cramp (<3%), muscle cramps (1% to 7%; frequency increases with age), musculoskeletal pain (3% to 5%)

Ophthalmic: Conjunctivitis (children: 1%)

Otic: Ear disease (<3%), otalgia (<3%), otitis media (≤4%), tinnitus (<3%)

Respiratory: Bronchitis (≥2%), cough (≥3%), dyspnea (<3%), epistaxis (children and adolescents: 1%), flu-like symptoms (3%), increased bronchial secretions (2%), laryngitis (<3%), nasal congestion (1%), nasopharyngitis (≥5%; children: 2%), oropharyngeal edema (<3%), oropharyngeal pain (≥5%; children: 2%), pulmonary disease (<3%), respiratory system disorder (6%), sinus headache (1%), sinusitis (≥5%), throat irritation (10%), upper respiratory tract inflammation (5%), viral upper respiratory tract infection (7%), wheezing (1% to 2%)

Miscellaneous: Accidental injury (<3%), fever (≥5% to 6%)

<1%:

Cardiovascular: Depression of ST segment on ECG

Gastrointestinal: Epigastric pain, stomach pain (children and adolescents)

Nervous system: Irritability, sleep disturbance

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Asthenia, muscle spasm (children and adolescents)

Ophthalmic: Mydriasis (children and adolescents)

Postmarketing:

Cardiovascular: Angina pectoris, atrial fibrillation, atrial tachycardia (Tandeter 2010), cardiac arrhythmia (Sears 2002), cardiomyopathy (takotsubo cardiomyopathy) (Khwaji 2016), hypotension, peripheral vasodilation, supraventricular tachycardia (Say 2014)

Dermatologic: Stevens-Johnson syndrome (Maggini 2015)

Endocrine & metabolic: Exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, hyperglycemia, hypokalemia (Udezue 1995), ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, metabolic acidosis

Gastrointestinal: Dysgeusia, gag reflex, tongue ulcer

Hypersensitivity: Anaphylaxis, angioedema

Nervous system: Psychosis (Martin 1995; Whitehouse 1989)

Respiratory: Hoarseness, oropharyngeal irritation, paradoxical bronchospasm (Schissler 2018)

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to albuterol or any component of the formulation; severe hypersensitivity to milk proteins (dry powder inhalers).

Canadian labeling: Additional contraindications (not in US labeling):

Injection: Ventolin: Hypersensitivity to albuterol or any component of the formulation; tachyarrhythmias; tocolytic use in patients at risk of premature labor or threatened abortion.

Inhalation: Hypersensitivity to albuterol or any component of the formulation; tocolytic use in patients at risk of premature labor or threatened abortion.

Warnings/Precautions

Disease-related concerns:

• Cardiovascular disease: Use with caution in patients with cardiovascular disease (arrhythmia, coronary insufficiency, hypertension, heart failure). In a scientific statement from the American Heart Association, albuterol has been determined to be an agent that may either cause direct myocardial toxicity or exacerbate underlying myocardial dysfunction (magnitude: moderate to major) (AHA [Page 2016]).

• Diabetes: Use with caution in patients with diabetes mellitus; beta-2 agonists may increase serum glucose and aggravate preexisting diabetes and ketoacidosis.

• Glaucoma: Use with caution in patients with glaucoma; may elevate intraocular pressure.

• Hyperthyroidism: Use with caution in hyperthyroidism; may stimulate thyroid activity.

• Hypokalemia: Use with caution in patients with hypokalemia; beta-2 agonists may decrease serum potassium.

• Renal impairment: Use with caution in patients with renal impairment.

• Seizures: Use with caution in patients with seizure disorders; beta-agonists may result in CNS stimulation/excitation.

Special populations:

• Pediatric: Oral inhalation: Use spacer for children <5 years of age and consider adding a face mask for infants and children <4 years of age.

Dosage form specific issues:

• Benzyl alcohol and derivatives: Some dosage forms may contain sodium benzoate/benzoic acid; benzoic acid (benzoate) is a metabolite of benzyl alcohol; large amounts of benzyl alcohol (≥99 mg/kg/day) have been associated with a potentially fatal toxicity (“gasping syndrome”) in neonates; the “gasping syndrome” consists of metabolic acidosis, respiratory distress, gasping respirations, CNS dysfunction (including convulsions, intracranial hemorrhage), hypotension, and cardiovascular collapse (AAP ["Inactive" 1997]; CDC 1982); some data suggests that benzoate displaces bilirubin from protein binding sites (Ahlfors 2001); avoid or use dosage forms containing benzyl alcohol derivative with caution in neonates. See manufacturer's labeling.

• Lactose: Dry powder inhalers may contain lactose; hypersensitivity reactions (eg, anaphylaxis, angioedema, pruritus, and rash) have been reported in patients with milk protein allergy.

Other warnings/precautions:

• Appropriate use: Do not exceed recommended dose; serious adverse events, including fatalities, have been associated with excessive use of inhaled sympathomimetics.

• Patient information: Patients must be instructed to seek medical attention in cases where acute symptoms are not relieved or a previous level of response is diminished. The need to increase frequency of use may indicate deterioration of asthma, and treatment must not be delayed. A spacer device or valved holding chamber is recommended when using a metered-dose inhaler.

Product Availability

Albuterol ER tablets have been discontinued in the United States for >1 year.

Dosage Forms Considerations

In the United States, the metered-dose inhaler (MDI) and dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations provide 90 mcg/actuation (from the mouthpiece). In Canada, the MDI products are labeled as providing 100 mcg/actuation (per the valve depression [ie, from the valve]) and the DPI, Ventolin Diskus [Canadian product], provides 200 mcg/actuation.

ProAir Digihaler 0.65 g inhaler, ProAir HFA 8.5 g canisters, ProAir RespiClick 0.65 g inhaler, Proventil HFA 6.7 g canisters, and Ventolin HFA 18 g canisters contain 200 inhalations. Ventolin HFA 8 g canisters contain 60 inhalations. The ProAir Digihaler is a digital inhaler which detects, records, and stores inhaler events, including peak inspiratory flow rate, and transmits data to a mobile application for inhaler use information.

Dosage Forms: US

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling. [DSC] = Discontinued product

Aerosol Powder Breath Activated, Inhalation:

ProAir Digihaler: 108 (90 Base) MCG/ACT (1 ea) [contains lactose monohydrate]

ProAir RespiClick: 90 mcg/actuation (1 ea) [contains milk protein]

Aerosol Solution, Inhalation:

ProAir HFA: 90 mcg/actuation (8.5 g [DSC])

Proventil HFA: 90 mcg/actuation (6.7 g [DSC])

Proventil HFA: 90 mcg/actuation (6.7 g) [cfc free]

Ventolin HFA: 90 mcg/actuation (8 g, 18 g)

Generic: 90 mcg/actuation (6.7 g, 8.5 g, 18 g)

Nebulization Solution, Inhalation:

Generic: 0.63 mg/3 mL (3 mL); 1.25 mg/3 mL (3 mL); 0.083% [2.5 mg/3 mL] (3 mL); 0.5% [2.5 mg/0.5 mL] (20 mL [DSC])

Nebulization Solution, Inhalation [preservative free]:

Generic: 0.63 mg/3 mL (3 mL); 1.25 mg/3 mL (3 mL); 0.083% [2.5 mg/3 mL] (3 mL); 0.5% [2.5 mg/0.5 mL] (1 ea)

Syrup, Oral:

Generic: 2 mg/5 mL (120 mL, 473 mL)

Tablet, Oral:

Generic: 2 mg, 4 mg

Tablet Extended Release 12 Hour, Oral:

Generic: 4 mg [DSC], 8 mg [DSC]

Generic Equivalent Available: US

May be product dependent

Pricing: US

Aerosol powder (ProAir Digihaler Inhalation)

108 (90 Base) mcg/ACT (per each): $108.00

Aerosol powder (ProAir RespiClick Inhalation)

108 (90 Base) mcg/ACT (per each): $81.84

Aerosol solution (Albuterol Sulfate HFA Inhalation)

108 (90 Base) mcg/ACT (per gram): $1.61 - $13.57

Aerosol solution (Proventil HFA Inhalation)

108 (90 Base) mcg/ACT (per gram): $14.28

Aerosol solution (Ventolin HFA Inhalation)

108 (90 Base) mcg/ACT (per gram): $3.41

Nebulization (Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation)

0.63 mg/3 mL (per mL): $0.28 - $0.58

1.25 mg/3 mL (per mL): $0.28 - $0.58

(2.5 MG/3ML) 0.083% (per mL): $0.12 - $0.52

Syrup (Albuterol Sulfate Oral)

2 mg/5 mL (per mL): $0.07 - $0.63

Tablets (Albuterol Sulfate Oral)

2 mg (per each): $5.87 - $5.88

4 mg (per each): $5.87 - $5.88

Disclaimer: A representative AWP (Average Wholesale Price) price or price range is provided as reference price only. A range is provided when more than one manufacturer's AWP price is available and uses the low and high price reported by the manufacturers to determine the range. The pricing data should be used for benchmarking purposes only, and as such should not be used alone to set or adjudicate any prices for reimbursement or purchasing functions or considered to be an exact price for a single product and/or manufacturer. Medi-Span expressly disclaims all warranties of any kind or nature, whether express or implied, and assumes no liability with respect to accuracy of price or price range data published in its solutions. In no event shall Medi-Span be liable for special, indirect, incidental, or consequential damages arising from use of price or price range data. Pricing data is updated monthly.

Dosage Forms: Canada

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling. [DSC] = Discontinued product

Aerosol Powder Breath Activated, Inhalation:

Ventolin Diskus: 200 mcg/actuation (1 ea) [contains lactose, milk protein]

Aerosol Solution, Inhalation, as sulfate:

Generic: 100 mcg/actuation (1 ea)

Aerosol Solution, Inhalation, as sulfate [strength expressed as base]:

Airomir: 100 mcg/actuation (6.7 g)

Ventolin HFA: 100 mcg/actuation (17 g)

Generic: 100 mcg/actuation (1 ea)

Nebulization Solution, Inhalation:

Ventolin: 0.5% [2.5 mg/0.5 mL] (10 mL)

Ventolin PF: 0.1% ([DSC]); 0.2% ([DSC])

Generic: 0.5 mg/mL (2.5 mL); 1 mg/mL (2.5 mL); 2 mg/mL (2.5 mL); 0.1% (2.5 mL); 0.2% (2.5 mL); 0.5% [2.5 mg/0.5 mL] (10 mL)

Solution, Intravenous:

Ventolin: 1 mg/mL (5 mL)

Administration: Adult

IV: Infusion solution [Canadian product]: Do not inject undiluted. Reduce concentration by at least 50% before infusing. Administer as a continuous infusion via infusion pump.

Oral inhalation:

Metered-dose inhalers: Shake well before use; prime prior to first use, and whenever inhaler has not been used for >2 weeks or when it has been dropped, by releasing 3 to 4 test sprays into the air (away from face). Airomir [Canadian product] labeling recommends releasing a minimum of 4 test sprays when priming. HFA inhalers should be cleaned with warm water at least once per week; allow to air dry completely prior to use. A spacer device or valved holding chamber is recommended for use with metered-dose inhalers.

Dry powder inhalers:

ProAir Digihaler, ProAir RespiClick: Inhaler device is breath-actuated; does not require priming. Do not use with spacer or volume holding chamber. Keep inhaler clean and dry by wiping with dry cloth or tissue as needed; do not wash or put any part of inhaler in water.

Ventolin Diskus [Canadian product]: For oral inhalation route only. To activate Diskus, patient should slide lever using the thumb grip away from them as far as it will go (click should be heard). Before inhaling the dose, breathe out fully; do not exhale into the Diskus device. Bring mouthpiece to lips and inhale steadily and deeply through the Diskus; hold breath for about 10 seconds or for as long as comfortable and exhale slowly. To close Diskus slide thumb grip back as far as it will go towards its original position. To prevent a wasted dose, the lever should not be manipulated until administration of next dose. Diskus counts down from 60 to 1 and when 5 doses remain the numbers appear in red. Diskus should be kept dry.

Nebulization solution: Concentrated solutions (≥0.5%) should be diluted prior to use; adjust nebulizer flow to deliver dosage over 5 to 15 minutes; avoid contact of the dropper tip (multidose bottle) with any surface, including the nebulizer reservoir and associated ventilator equipment. Blow-by administration is not recommended; use a mask device if patient unable to hold mouthpiece in mouth for administration. Compatibility with other medications (eg, budesonide, fluticasone, ipratropium) in nebulizer has been reported (Ref); also refer to institution-specific policies.

Oral: Do not cut, crush, or chew ER tablets.

Bariatric surgery: Tablet, extended release: Some institutions may have specific protocols that conflict with these recommendations; refer to institutional protocols as appropriate. Switch to IR formulation.

Administration: Pediatric

Oral inhalation: In infants and children <4 years of age, a face mask with either the metered-dose inhaler or nebulizer is recommended (Ref).

Metered-dose inhaler: Shake well before use; prime the inhaler prior to first use and whenever it has not been used for >2 weeks or when it has been dropped by releasing 3 to 4 test sprays into the air away from the face. Airomir [Canadian product] labeling recommends releasing a minimum of 4 test sprays when priming. A valved holding chamber or spacer is recommended for use with an MDI in patients with poor technique and is the recommended medication delivery system in all patients ≤5 years of age, with the addition of a mask for patients <3 or 4 years of age or until proper technique is demonstrated (Ref). Remove cap from mouthpiece and shake inhaler. Exhale fully prior to bringing inhaler to mouth. Place inhaler or valved holding chamber mouthpiece in mouth, close lips around mouthpiece, and inhale slowly and deeply while pressing down on the canister with your finger. Remove device and hold breath for as long as possible, up to 10 seconds. Breath out slowly. If prescribed dose is more than 1 inhalation, wait 1 minute between each inhalation and shake inhaler prior to each inhalation. HFA inhalers should be cleaned with warm water at least once per week; allow to air dry completely prior to use. Discard inhaler when the dose indicator window displays "0".

Dry powder inhaler:

ProAir Digihaler, ProAir RespiClick: Inhaler device is breath-actuated; does not require priming. Hold the inhaler upright and open cap. When cap is opened and click is heard, the dose is activated; do not open until ready for dose. Before inhaling the dose, breathe out fully; do not exhale into the mouthpiece. Place inhaler in mouth, close lips around mouthpiece, and inhale quickly and deeply. Hold breath for about 10 seconds or for as long as comfortable and exhale slowly. If additional inhalations are needed for a full dose, close cap and repeat the process used for the first inhalation. Do not use with spacer or volume holding chamber. Keep inhaler clean and dry by wiping with dry cloth or tissue as needed; do not wash or put any part of inhaler in water. The dose indicator tells how many doses are left. When the number 20 appears in red, only a few doses remain, and the pharmacy should be contacted for a refill. Discard inhaler 13 months after removal from foil pouch or when the dose counter reads "0" (whichever comes first).

Ventolin Diskus [Canadian product]: For oral inhalation route only. After opening the Diskus, hold in a level, horizontal position and activate by sliding the lever until it clicks. Before inhaling the dose, breathe out fully; do not exhale into the Diskus device; activate and use only in a level, horizontal position. Bring mouthpiece to lips and inhale quickly and deeply through the Diskus; hold breath for about 10 seconds or for as long as comfortable and exhale slowly. Do not use with a spacer device or wash mouthpiece; Diskus should be kept dry. The dose indicator tells how many doses are left. When the numbers 5 to 0 appear in red, only a few doses remain, and the pharmacy should be contacted for a refill.

Nebulization: Concentrated solutions (≥0.5%) should be diluted prior to use; avoid contact of the dropper tip (multidose bottle) with any surface, including the nebulizer reservoir and associated ventilator equipment. Blow-by administration is not recommended; use a mask device if patient is unable to hold mouthpiece in mouth for administration. Compatibility with other medications (eg, budesonide, fluticasone, ipratropium) in nebulizer has been reported (Ref); also refer to institution-specific policies

Oral: Do not crush or chew extended-release tablets.

Use: Labeled Indications

Bronchospasm: Treatment or prevention of bronchospasm in patients with reversible obstructive airway disease (eg, asthma).

Note: Asthma (oral product): Although included as an FDA-approved use in the manufacturer's prescribing information for the treatment of asthma, oral short-acting beta agonists, including oral albuterol, are not recommended due to the slower onset of action and higher risk of adverse effects (GINA 2022; NAEPP 2007).

Exercise-induced bronchospasm: Prevention of exercise-induced bronchospasm.

Use: Off-Label: Adult

Hyperkalemia (inhalation)

Medication Safety Issues
Sound-alike/look-alike issues:

Albuterol may be confused with Albutein, atenolol

Proventil may be confused with Bentyl, PriLOSEC, Prinivil

Salbutamol may be confused with salmeterol

Ventolin may be confused with phentolamine, Benylin, Vantin

Metabolism/Transport Effects

None known.

Drug Interactions

Note: Interacting drugs may not be individually listed below if they are part of a group interaction (eg, individual drugs within “CYP3A4 Inducers [Strong]” are NOT listed). For a complete list of drug interactions by individual drug name and detailed management recommendations, use the Lexicomp drug interactions program by clicking on the “Launch drug interactions program” link above.

Atomoxetine: May enhance the tachycardic effect of Beta2-Agonists. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Atomoxetine: May enhance the hypertensive effect of Sympathomimetics. Atomoxetine may enhance the tachycardic effect of Sympathomimetics. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Atosiban: Beta2-Agonists may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Atosiban. Specifically, there may be an increased risk for pulmonary edema and/or dyspnea. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Beta2-Agonists (Short-Acting): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Beta2-Agonists (Short-Acting). Risk X: Avoid combination

Beta-Blockers (Beta1 Selective): May diminish the bronchodilatory effect of Beta2-Agonists. Of particular concern with nonselective beta-blockers or higher doses of the beta1 selective beta-blockers. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Beta-Blockers (Nonselective): May diminish the bronchodilatory effect of Beta2-Agonists. Risk X: Avoid combination

Cannabinoid-Containing Products: May enhance the tachycardic effect of Sympathomimetics. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Cocaine (Topical): May enhance the hypertensive effect of Sympathomimetics. Management: Consider alternatives to use of this combination when possible. Monitor closely for substantially increased blood pressure or heart rate and for any evidence of myocardial ischemia with concurrent use. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Doxofylline: Sympathomimetics may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Doxofylline. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Guanethidine: May enhance the arrhythmogenic effect of Sympathomimetics. Guanethidine may enhance the hypertensive effect of Sympathomimetics. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Haloperidol: QT-prolonging Agents (Indeterminate Risk - Caution) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Haloperidol. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Kratom: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Sympathomimetics. Risk X: Avoid combination

Levothyroxine: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Sympathomimetics. Specifically, the risk of coronary insufficiency may be increased in patients with coronary artery disease. Levothyroxine may enhance the therapeutic effect of Sympathomimetics. Sympathomimetics may enhance the therapeutic effect of Levothyroxine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Linezolid: May enhance the hypertensive effect of Sympathomimetics. Management: Consider initial dose reductions of sympathomimetic agents, and closely monitor for enhanced blood pressure elevations, in patients receiving linezolid. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Loop Diuretics: Beta2-Agonists may enhance the hypokalemic effect of Loop Diuretics. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Loxapine: Agents to Treat Airway Disease may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Loxapine. More specifically, the use of Agents to Treat Airway Disease is likely a marker of patients who are likely at a greater risk for experiencing significant bronchospasm from use of inhaled loxapine. Management: This is specific to the Adasuve brand of loxapine, which is an inhaled formulation. This does not apply to non-inhaled formulations of loxapine. Risk X: Avoid combination

Methacholine: Beta2-Agonists (Short-Acting) may diminish the therapeutic effect of Methacholine. Management: Hold short-acting beta2 agonists for 6 hours before methacholine use. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Beta2-Agonists. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Ozanimod: May enhance the hypertensive effect of Sympathomimetics. Risk C: Monitor therapy

QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk): QT-prolonging Agents (Indeterminate Risk - Caution) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk). Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Solriamfetol: Sympathomimetics may enhance the hypertensive effect of Solriamfetol. Sympathomimetics may enhance the tachycardic effect of Solriamfetol. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Sympathomimetics: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Tedizolid: May enhance the hypertensive effect of Sympathomimetics. Tedizolid may enhance the tachycardic effect of Sympathomimetics. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Theophylline Derivatives: Beta2-Agonists may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Theophylline Derivatives. Specifically, sympathomimetic effects may be increased. Theophylline Derivatives may enhance the hypokalemic effect of Beta2-Agonists. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics: Beta2-Agonists may enhance the hypokalemic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Tricyclic Antidepressants: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Beta2-Agonists. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Pregnancy Considerations

Albuterol crosses the placenta (Boulton 1997).

Maternal use of beta-2 agonists is not associated with an increased risk of fetal malformations (GINA 2022). Systemic use may be associated with hypoglycemia and tachycardia in the mother and fetus (ERS/TSANZ [Middleton 2020]). Albuterol may affect uterine contractility by interacting with beta-2 adrenoceptors in the uterus.

Uncontrolled asthma is associated with adverse events on pregnancy (increased risk of perinatal mortality, preeclampsia, preterm birth, low-birth-weight infants, cesarean delivery, and the development of gestational diabetes). Poorly controlled asthma or asthma exacerbations may have a greater fetal/maternal risk than what is associated with appropriately used asthma medications. Maternal treatment improves pregnancy outcomes by reducing the risk of some adverse events (eg, preterm birth and gestational diabetes) (ERS/TSANZ [Middleton 2020]; GINA 2022).

Albuterol is the preferred short-acting beta-2 agonist (SABA) for the management of asthma during pregnancy (ERS/TSANZ [Middleton 2020]). Pregnant patients should be treated with a SABA for acute asthma exacerbations (GINA 2022). Maternal asthma symptoms should be monitored monthly (ERS/TSANZ [Middleton 2020]; GINA 2022). If high doses of albuterol are required within 48 hours of delivery, monitoring of glucose concentrations in the newborn for 24 hours is recommended, especially in preterm infants (GINA 2022).

Due to effects on uterine contractility, albuterol has been studied as a tocolytic to prevent preterm labor (not an approved use in the United States or Canada). Maternal side effects associated with this use include cardiac arrhythmias, metabolic changes (hypokalemia, hyperglycemia), myocardial ischemia, and pulmonary edema; fetal tachycardia may also occur. Due to the increased risk of adverse events and the availability of safer options, albuterol is not recommended for use as a tocolytic (ACOG 2016; Besinger 1990; Chan 2006; NICE 2015; Sentilhes 2017; WHO 2015).

Data collection to monitor pregnancy and infant outcomes associated with asthma and the medications used to treat asthma in pregnancy is ongoing. Healthcare providers are encouraged to enroll exposed pregnant patients in the MotherToBaby Pregnancy Studies conducted by the Organization of Teratology Information Specialists (1-877-311-8972 or https://mothertobaby.org). Patients may also enroll themselves.

Breastfeeding Considerations

It is not known if albuterol is present in breast milk.

The amount of albuterol available systemically following inhalation is significantly less in comparison to oral doses. According to the manufacturer, the decision to breastfeed during therapy should consider the risk of infant exposure, the benefits of breastfeeding to the infant, and the benefits of treatment to the mother.

Use of albuterol is generally considered compatible with breastfeeding when used in usual doses (ERS/TSANZ [Middleton 2020]; WHO 2002).

Monitoring Parameters

FEV1, peak flow, and/or other pulmonary function tests; blood pressure, heart rate; CNS stimulation; serum glucose, serum potassium, serum creatinine; asthma symptoms; arterial or capillary blood gases (if patients condition warrants); lactate (IV formulation) (BTS 2019); continuous ECG monitoring (intravenous formulation).

Mechanism of Action

Relaxes bronchial smooth muscle by action on beta2-receptors with little effect on heart rate.

Pharmacokinetics (Adult Data Unless Noted)

Onset of action:

Nebulization solution: ≤5 minutes.

Oral inhalation: DPI: 5.7 minutes (median); MDI: 5.4 to 8.2 minutes (median).

Oral: Immediate release: ≤30 minutes.

Duration of action:

Nebulization solution: 3 to 6 hours.

Oral inhalation: DPI: ~2 hours (median); MDI: ~4 to 6 hours.

Oral: Immediate release: 6 to 8 hours; Extended release: Up to 12 hours.

Protein binding: 10%.

Metabolism: Hepatic to an inactive sulfate.

Half-life elimination:

Oral inhalation: 3.8 to ~5 hours.

Oral: Immediate release: 5 to 6 hours; Extended release: 9.3 hours.

Time to peak, serum:

Nebulization solution: 30 minutes.

Oral inhalation: DPI: 30 minutes; MDI: 25 minutes (mean).

Oral: Immediate release: ≤2 hours; Extended release: 6 hours

Time to peak, FEV1:

Nebulization solution: ~1 to 2 hours.

Oral inhalation: DPI: Within 30 minutes; MDI: 47 minutes.

Oral: Immediate release: 2 to 3 hours.

Excretion: Urine (80% to 100% [oral inhalation]; 76% over 3 days [60% metabolite; oral]); Feces (<20% [oral inhalation]; 4% [oral]).

Pharmacokinetics: Additional Considerations (Adult Data Unless Noted)

Altered kidney function: There was a 67% decline in albuterol clearance in patients with CrCl 7 to 53 mL/minute.

Brand Names: International
International Brand Names by Country
For country code abbreviations (show table)

  • (AE) United Arab Emirates: Airomir | Asmadil | Asmanore | Asthalin | Asthavent | Asthavent dp | Butalin | Butovent | Disbron | Farcolin | Neoventil | Salamol | Vental | Ventamol | Ventol | Ventolin;
  • (AR) Argentina: Aerolep | Aircosalm | Aircosalm hfa | Airsalbu | Amocasin | Asmatol | Asmatol hfa | Butamol | Cercini | Duopack | Labsavent | Microterol | Nebutrax | Niblet | Respiret klonal | Salbuden | Salbuden con aerocamara df | Salbutamol | Salbutamol denver farma | Salbutamol fabra | Salbutamol kilab | Salbutamol lacefa | Salbutamol lafedar | Salbutamol Pharma | Salbutamol richet | Salbutol | Salbutral | Salbutral c/aeromed | Ventolin | Yontal | Zoom;
  • (AT) Austria: Salbutamol sandoz | Sultanol;
  • (AU) Australia: Airomir | Apo salbutamol | Asmol | Epaq | Respax | Respolin | Ventolin | Zempreon;
  • (BD) Bangladesh: Absol | Actolin | Alvolex | Asmalin hfa | Asmatol | Asmolex | Asnil | Asthmarol | Asthmolin | Asul | Azmasol | Bitol | Broad | Brodil | Brolax | Broncodil | Broncolin | Bronkolax | Butalin | Butamol | Butol | D-Butamol | Decabutamol | Dilatol | G-salbutamol | Jp salbo | Koptolin | Pulmocare | Pulmolin | Respolin | Reven | Salbo | Salbu | Salbunil | Salbusol | Salbut | Salbutal | Salbutamol | Salmol | Salmolin | Sulbutamol | Sultolin | Sultolin hfa | Tolin | Venol | Ventisal | Ventol | Ventolex | Ventolin | Windel;
  • (BE) Belgium: Airomir | Docsalbuta | Ecosal Easi Breath | Salbutamol sandoz | Ventolin;
  • (BF) Burkina Faso: Asthalin | Buto Asma | Salbutus | Tamuxxair | Ventoline | Ventoline rotacaps;
  • (BG) Bulgaria: Buto-Asma | Ecosal | Salamol | Salbutamol | Ventolin;
  • (BR) Brazil: Acobelin | Aero ifal | Aero-ped | Aeroclean | Aerodini | Aerofrin | Aerogold | Aerogreen | Aerojet | Aerolin | Aeromed | Aerotamol | Aerotrat | Albulin | Asmaflux | Asmakil | Asmaliv | Broncofedrin | Broncomix | Bronconal | Butalab | Butovent | Dilamol | Neutoss | Pulmoflux | Regrair | Salburin | Salbutalin | Salbutam | Salbutamax | Salrolin | Saltamol | Sarolin | Sulfato de salbutamol | Teoden | Tussiliv;
  • (CH) Switzerland: Ecovent | Salamol | Ventodisk | Ventolin | Ventolin zuckerfrei mit saccharin | Volmax;
  • (CI) Côte d'Ivoire: Aerol | Asthalin | Broncoron | Salbutus | Ventoline rotacaps;
  • (CL) Chile: Aero-sal | Aerolin | Astin | Broncoterol | Bropil | Butotal | Fesema | Respiret | Respolin | Sacrusyt | Salbusev | Salbutamol | Salbutral | Salbutral hfa | Sinasmal;
  • (CN) China: Ai sha xi le | Cyclocaps | Da fen ke chuang | Hui bai shi | Pin chuan | Salbutamol | Sha pu er | Ventolin | Volmax | Wan tuo lin;
  • (CO) Colombia: Airmax | Asthalin Hfa | Bajapres | Bentusol | Benylan | Bonair | Bronter | Brotamol | Bugonol | Butotal | Ciplabutol | Deltabutol | Friotan | Neumoterol | Parasma | Rexpirex | Sacrusyt | Salbumed | Salburex | Salbutamol | Salbutamol mk | Salbutamol MK | Salbutan | Servitamol | Ventilan;
  • (CZ) Czech Republic: Asmaven | Asthalin | Buventol | Ecosal | Salbumol | Salbutamol | Ventolin;
  • (DE) Germany: Aerolin | Aerolind | Apsomol | Apsomol n | Broncho | Bronchospray | Loftan | Paediamol | Salbu | Salbu-fatol | Salbuhexal | Salbuhexal N | Salbupur d | Salbupur e | Salbusandoz | Salbutamol | Salbutamol 1 A Pharma | Salbutamol al | Salbutamol CT | Salbutamol sandoz | Salbutamol stada | Salbutamol Trom | Salbutamol-ratiopharm n | Salvent | Sultanol | Volmac;
  • (DO) Dominican Republic: Aerolin | Airplen | Albugenol | Alunic | Amocasin | Asthalin | Astumol | Broncomat | Broncosamol | Buto air | Buto Asma | Butovent | Dilabron | Elbutamol | Frabutamol | Lascobutamol | Nebusol | Respiret | Salbucyma | Salbufar | Salbulin | Salbumox | Salbutamol | Salbutamol Feltrex | Salbutan | Salbutol | Salbutral | Salcrymol | Salventil | Ventolin;
  • (EC) Ecuador: Airmax | Bemin | Broncoterol | Butotal | Ciplabutol | Ecutamol | Krosalburol | Nebulasma | Salbutamol | Salbutamol Ecar | Salbutamol mk | Salbutamol MK | Salden | Ventolin;
  • (EE) Estonia: Buventol | Ecosal | Ecosal easi-breath | Salbutamol-dynapharm | Salbuvent | Ventolin | Volmax;
  • (EG) Egypt: Aerolin | Albuterol | Bronchoterol | Bronchovent | Butalin | Farcolin | Mepacovent | Octovent | Salbovent | Salbuline | Salbutamol | Vental | Ventene | Ventolin | Viasalmol;
  • (ES) Spain: Aldobronquial | Bronsal | Buto air | Buto Asma | Dipulmin | Emican | Salbutamol aldo union | Salbutamol sandoz | Ventiloboi | Ventoaldo | Ventolin;
  • (ET) Ethiopia: Albuterol | Lebasma | Salbutamol | Salbutamol sulphate | Ventolin;
  • (FI) Finland: Airomir | Buventol | Salbumol | Ventoline;
  • (FR) France: Airomir | Salbumol | Spreor | Ventexxair | Ventoline;
  • (GB) United Kingdom: Airomir | Airsalb | Asmasal | Asmavent | Cobutolin | Libetist | Salamol | Salapin | Salbulin | Salbutamol | Salbutamol Berk | Salbutamol Ivax | Salbutamol sandoz | Ventolin;
  • (GR) Greece: Aerolin | Asthmotrate | Normobron | Normobron pulvinal | Salbunova | Salbutamol | Salomol | Ventolin;
  • (HK) Hong Kong: Airomir | Apo-salvent | Asmalin | Asmovent | Asthalin Hfa | Axcel Salbutamol | Azmacon | Azmasol | Buto Asma | Cybutol | Eurotolin | Medolin | Respolin | Respreve | Salamol | Salbutamol | Salmol | Saltalin | Salven | Solia | Syntalin | Synvent hfa 100 | Uni-Butamol | Vantin | Ventamol | Venteze | Ventolin | Zenmolin;
  • (HR) Croatia: Salbutamol Pliva | Ventolin;
  • (HU) Hungary: Ac-butamol | Ecosal | Huma-salmol | Salbutamol | Ventolin | Volmax;
  • (ID) Indonesia: Asmacare | Asmacel | Astharol | Azmacon | Brondisal | Cybutol | Dilatamol | Dipsamol | Fartolin | Glisend | Grafalin | Lasal | Librentin | Pritasma | Respolin | Salbron | Salbulin | Salbutamol | Salbuven | Saltam | Suprasma | Venterol | Ventolin;
  • (IE) Ireland: Airomir | Gerivent | Salamol | Salbul | Salbutamol | Salomol | Ventamol | Ventolin;
  • (IL) Israel: Apovent | Ventolin | Volmax;
  • (IN) India: Aerotaz | Alsal | Asmanil | Asthalin | Asthalin Hfa | Asthalin sa | Astinol | Bemol | Broncocet | Bronko | Bronkonat | Brosol | Derihaler | Durasal | Frespire | Lebasma | Pertulyn | Rheolin | Salbair | Salbetol | Salbid | Salbusun | Salbutamol | Salbutas | Salmaplon | Somavent | Sos | Vent | Ventamol | Ventil | Ventisol | Ventorlin | Ventryl;
  • (IT) Italy: Aerotec | Broncovaleas | Salbufax | Salbutamolo Sandoz | Ventolin;
  • (JO) Jordan: Aerolin | Asmadil | Asmanor | Asthalin | Butalin | Butovent | Medolin | Salbutis | Vental | Ventol | Ventolin;
  • (JP) Japan: Airomir | Asmidon | Asu tajisu | Benareal | Renapirin | Saltan | Sultanol | Tivoline | Venetlin;
  • (KE) Kenya: Asbutol | Asmeez | Astalin | Asthadin | Asthalin | Azmasol | Bonair | Brodil hfa | Bronchomol | Butin | Derihaler | Salbucort | Salbumol | Salbut | Salbutamol;
  • (KR) Korea, Republic of: Respolin | Salbutamol | Salbutamol bkw | Salbutol | Ventolin | Ventolin respirator;
  • (KW) Kuwait: Butalin | Neoventil | Salamol | Salbucare | Salbutamed | Vental | Ventol | Ventolin | Ventomax;
  • (LB) Lebanon: Aloprol | Asmalat | Butalin | Buto Asma | Butovent | Neoventil | Salbutamol | Ventolin | Volmax;
  • (LT) Lithuania: Asmaven | Asthalin | Astmasol | Ecosal | Salamol | Salbutamol | Salbutamol inteli | Salbuvent | Ventodisk | Ventolin | Volmax;
  • (LU) Luxembourg: Airomir | Ventolin;
  • (LV) Latvia: Asmaven | Asthalin | Astmasol | Salamol | Salbutamol | Salbutamol inteli | Salbutamol maxpharma | Salbuvent | Sultanol | Ventolin | Volmax;
  • (MA) Morocco: Aerol | Bulmol | Butamyl | Butovent | Dilator | Inaler | Servitamol | Ventoline;
  • (MX) Mexico: Alisal | Aposalvent | Assal | Avedox fc | Avendox fc | Azyrol | Biorenyn | Bresaltec | Brusal | Capacit | Cobamol | Exafil | Farmarest | Inbumed | Iqfavent | Nebsal | Quinfaval | Rodribrak | Sacrusyt | Salamol | Salbutalan | Salbutamol | Salbutamol boehringer | Salbutamol gi | Salbutamol gi arle | Salbutamol gi brul | Salbutamol gi merc | Salbutamol gi salu | Salbutamol protein | Salbutamol ultra | Salbutamol wyeth | Salbutamol zerboni | Salcomed | Sofamix | Tunxin | Unibron | Ventilan | Ventolin | Zibil;
  • (MY) Malaysia: Airomir | Anasma | Asmaliv | Asmin | Asmol | Asthalin | Asthavent | Axcel Salbutamol | Azmasol | Beatolin | Biomol | Bonair | Breathnine | Brethmol | Broncolin | Butahale | Butavent | Butovent | Healol salbutamol | Medolin | Rescanil | Salamol | Salbutamol | Salmax | Salmol | Saltoline | Ventamol | Ventolin;
  • (NG) Nigeria: Afrab salbutamol | Asmacof p | Asthalin | Axcel salbutamol | Azmasol | Bexilin | Bleornol | Bonair | Farmex salbutamol | Greenhope salbutamol | Kinzolin | Sabumalin | Salbutamol | Suretolin | Zotrex;
  • (NL) Netherlands: Aerolin | Airomir | Salbutamol | Salbutamol A | Salbutamol actavis | Salbutamol CF | Salbutamol cyclocaps | Salbutamol pch | Salbutamol redihaler | Salbutamol sandoz | Ventolin | Ventolin es;
  • (NO) Norway: Aerolin | Airomir | Salbutamol eipico | Ventilan | Ventolin | Ventoline;
  • (NZ) New Zealand: Airomir | Asmol | Broncolin | Respigen | Respolin | Salair | Salamol | Salbutamol | Ventolin;
  • (PE) Peru: Acteril | Aeroler | Aircosalm hfa | Airplen | Apo-salvent | Asthalin | Broncobutol | Bronquimax | Butahale | Butotal | Pectolin | Salbid | Salbutam | Salbutamo | Salbutamol | Salbutol | Salbutral | Salbutrin | Salbuvent | Servitamol | Sultadrin | Ventimax | Ventolin | Ventusol;
  • (PH) Philippines: Activent | Airhexal | Airomir | Airsal | Albulem | Amoltex | Arbados | Asbunyl | Asfrenon | Asmacaire | Asmafort | Asmalin | Asmamed | Asmar | Asmarex | Astagen | Asvimol | Axmaxolv | Beisol | Bioxal | Boie Salbutamol | Breezol | Broncaire | Broncolin | Bronelid | Brytolin | Butadil | Butovent | Cletal | Derihaler | Efamed | Emplusal | Gloleen | Hivent | Librentin | Medic aid salbutamol | Meventil | Mgl-salbutamol | Nobutol | Primesal | Prox-s | Resdil | Resovent | Respolin | Sal | Salbuflo | Salbuhaler | Salbumed | Salbumin | Salbusol | Salbutamol | Salbutamol Am-Europharma | Salbutamol Myrex | Salbutamol Pacific | Salbuvan | Saltal 4 | Salvex | Sedalin | Socamol | Solben | Theoryl | Turbolax | Venalax | Vencronyl | Ventar | Vento-broncho | Ventolax | Ventolin | Ventomax | Ventosal | Ventress | VN2;
  • (PK) Pakistan: Aerolin | Aerotec | Asmatol | Asthamol | Asthavent | Blissbronchal | Breathmore | Bronchilate | Broncolin | Bronkal | Broven | Butamin | Butamol | Butoasma | Butovent | Erobolin | Eulin | Faktolin | Inhalerin | Inspirol | Radisal | Respilax | Respolin | Salbair | Salbax | Salbest | Salbo | Salbovent | Salbree dpi | Salbuhaler | Salmol | Venex | Ventiplus | Ventolin | Ventopharm | Ventosal | Wintol | Zaftolin;
  • (PL) Poland: Albuterol | Aspulmo | Sabumalin | Salamol eb | Salbutamol | Salbuvent | Velaspir | Ventolin;
  • (PR) Puerto Rico: Albuterol | Albuterol Hfa | Albuterol sulfate | Albuterol sulfate hfa | Proventil | Proventil hfa | Ventolin | Ventolin hfa;
  • (PT) Portugal: Prodome | Salbutamol Generis | Salbutamol GP | Salbutamol sandoz | Ventilan;
  • (PY) Paraguay: Acteril | Acteril plus | Aircosalm hfa | Asmavent sf | Asmazol | Asthalin | Broncofil | Brondil plus | Butamol | Codetamol | Lung | Respiral | Respiran | Salbutamol caplin point | Salbutamol dutriec | Salbutamol empa | Salbutamol genfar | Salbutamol imedic | Salbutamol la sante | Salbutamol pasteur | Salbutamol v y t farma | Salbutamol vyt farma | Salbutol | Salbutolin | Salbutral | Sinasmal | Sinasmal sf | Tarison | Ventilex | Ventiplus | Ventolin | Zoom;
  • (RO) Romania: Farcolin | Salbutamol eipico | Ventolin;
  • (RU) Russian Federation: Astalin | Asthalin | Cybutol cyclocaps | Gen salbutamol | Novatron | Novatron neo | Salamol | Salamol easy breat | Salamol eco | Salamol eco easy breath | Salbutamol | Salbutamol aeronativ | Salbutamol air | Salbutamol av | Salbutamol mhfp | Salbutamol pharmstandart | Salbutamol Teva | Salbuvent | Salgim | Saltos | Ventocol | Ventodisk | Ventolin | Vertasort | Volmax;
  • (SA) Saudi Arabia: Airomir | Asmadil | Asmanore | Asthalin | Asthavent | Butalin | Butovent | Disbron | Farcolin | Neoventil | Salamol | Salbulase | Salbutamed | Ventolin | Ventolin cr | Vintec;
  • (SE) Sweden: Airomir | Sabufarm | Salbutamol Scand Pharm | Salbuvent | Ventoline;
  • (SG) Singapore: Apo-salvent | Asmol | Azmasol | Butahale | Buto-Asma | Medolin | Sabutol | Salamol | Salbuair | Salbutamol | Salmol | Unisabmol | Venderol | Ventamol | Ventolin | Zenmolin;
  • (SI) Slovenia: Ventolin;
  • (SK) Slovakia: Ecosal | Salamol | Salbutamol | Ventodisk | Ventolin;
  • (SL) Sierra Leone: Chemolin;
  • (TH) Thailand: Aeromol | Aerotamol | Antomol | Asmasal | Asmatol | Asmatum | Asmo | Asmol | Asthalin | Asthamol | Asthma | Asthmolin | Bocoma | Bonair | Bronchodyl | Bronchosol | Butamol | Buto-asma inhaler | Butovent | Cintamol | Kressvent | Medolin | N-tolin | Naso | Natolin | Respolin | Sabumol | Saburin | Salamol | Salbetol | Salbulin | Salbusian | Salbutac | Salbutamol | Salbuvent | Salda | Saldol | Salmodon | Salmol | Saltalin | Saltolin | Satalin | Servitamol | Solia | Starbumol | Tanalin | Venbumed | Venbumol | Venbutin | Venline | Venmed | Ventamed | Venterol | Ventolin | Violin;
  • (TN) Tunisia: Albutol | Asmadil | Butalin | Butovent | Salbutamol | Salbuvent | Ventmax | Ventoline;
  • (TR) Turkey: Asthavent | Brecur | Butovent | Salbulin | Salbutol | Salres | Vent-O-Sal | Ventolin | Ventosal;
  • (TW) Taiwan: Airomir | Albuterol | Albutol | Astamol | Bentolin | Censolin | Cotran | Mozal | Nopant | Respolin | Sabuchan | Sabumol | Sabutal | Sadamol | Salamol | Salbumol | Salbutain | Salbutamo | Salbutamol | Salbutan | Salbutol | Salbuvent | Salmol | Saltmol | Saltol | Saltolin | Salutol | Samol | Satamol | Sucotin | Sunling | Synvent hfa | Ventolin;
  • (UA) Ukraine: Aerolin | Asthalin | Brutamol | Nebutamol | Salamol | Salamol Easy Breath | Salamol eco | Salbutamol | Salbutamol neo | Salbuvent | Ventolin;
  • (UG) Uganda: Agobutol | Agolin | Asbutol | Asthalin | Astharen | Azmasol | Kam vent | Lebasma | Sabulin | Salbumol | Salbut | Salres | Ventolin;
  • (UY) Uruguay: Airomir | Asmatol | Butovent | Raudosal | Respiran | Salbulin | Salbutamol Winpharm | Salbutral | Tarison | Ventiplus | Ventolin;
  • (VE) Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of: Aerodini | Albutan | Asthalin | Butahale | Butoas | Diadilat | Respolin hfa | Sacrusyt | Salbuden | Salbulis | Salbumed | Salburol | Salbutamol | Salbutan | Salres | Sultolin | Ventolin;
  • (VN) Viet Nam: Hasalbu | Zensalbu;
  • (ZA) South Africa: Airomir | Asthalin | Asthavent | Cybutol | Glenbute | Salbulin | Vari salbutamol | Venteze | Ventimax | Ventolin | Viavent;
  • (ZM) Zambia: Asthalin | Asthamol | Lastmol | Lebasma | Mestil | Sabulin | Salbair | Salbamol | Salbukant | Salbuta | Salbutamol | Salfil | Salmol | Samaol | Samol | Statasmin | Ventamol | Venteze | Ventolin;
  • (ZW) Zimbabwe: Asmanol | Asthalin | Salbutamol | Venteze | Ventolin
  1. Ahlfors CE. Benzyl alcohol, kernicterus, and unbound bilirubin. J Pediatr. 2001;139(2):317-319. [PubMed 11487763]
  2. Airomir (salbutamol) [product monograph]. Laval, Quebec, Canada: Bausch Health, Canada Inc; December 2020.
  3. Albuterol sulfate inhalation solution 0.5% [prescribing information]. Amityville, NY: Hi-Tech Pharmacal Co; February 2017.
  4. Albuterol sulfate inhalation solution [prescribing information]. Columbia, SC: The Ritedose Corporation; August 2022.
  5. Albuterol sulfate inhalation solution 0.021% and 0.042% [prescribing information]. Columbia, SC: The Ritedose Corp; April 2022.
  6. Albuterol sulfate syrup [prescribing information]. Largo, FL: VistaPharm, Inc.; June 2016.
  7. Albuterol sulfate syrup [prescribing information]. Lincolnton, NC: Cosette Pharmaceuticals Inc; November 2020.
  8. Albuterol sulfate syrup [prescribing information]. West Caldwell, NJ: Quagen Pharmaceuticals LLC; September 2019.
  9. Albuterol sulfate extended-release tablet [prescribing information]. Morgantown, WV: Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc; March 2015.
  10. Albuterol sulfate tablet [prescribing information]. Langhorne, PA: Virtus Pharmaceuticals, LLC; August 2018.
  11. Albuterol sulfate tablet [prescribing information]. Pennington, NJ: Zydus Pharmaceuticals USA Inc; July 2019.
  12. Allon M, Copkney C. Albuterol and insulin for treatment of hyperkalemia in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int. 1990;38(5):869-872. [PubMed 2266671]
  13. Allon M, Dunlay R, Copkney C. Nebulized albuterol for acute hyperkalemia in patients on hemodialysis. Ann Intern Med. 1989;110(6):426-429. [PubMed 2919849]
  14. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). ACOG practice bulletin no. 171: management of preterm labor. Obstet Gynecol. 2016;128(4):e155-e164. doi:10.097/AOG.0000000000001711 [PubMed 27661654]
  15. American College of Radiology (ACR) Committee on Drugs and Contrast Media. ACR Manual on Contrast Media. https://www.acr.org/-/media/ACR/Files/Clinical-Resources/Contrast_Media.pdf. Published January 2021. Accessed June 22, 2021.
  16. Aronoff GR, Bennett WM, Berns JS, et al, eds. Drug Prescribing in Renal Failure: Dosing Guidelines for Adults and Children. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: American College of Physicians; 2007.
  17. Avital A, Godfrey S, Schachter J, Springer C. Protective effect of albuterol delivered via a spacer device (Babyhaler) against methacholine induced bronchoconstriction in young wheezy children. Pediatr Pulmonol. 1994;17(5):281-284. doi:10.1002/ppul.1950170503 [PubMed 8058420]
  18. Ballard J, Lugo RA, and Salyer JW, "A Survey of Albuterol Administration Practices in Intubated Patients in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit," Respir Care, 2002, 47(1):31-8. [PubMed 11749685]
  19. Bartfield JM, Boenau IB, Lozon J, et al, “Comparison of Metered Dose Inhaler and Oral Administration of Albuterol in the Outpatient Treatment of Infants and Children,” Am J Emerg Med, 1995, 13(3):375-8. [PubMed 7755840]
  20. Batterink J, Cessford TA, Taylor RA. Pharmacological interventions for the acute management of hyperkalemia in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;10:CD010344. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010344.pub2 [PubMed 35658162]
  21. Bentur L, Mansour Y, Hamzani Y, Beck R, Elias N, Amirav I. Measurement of inspiratory flow in children with acute asthma. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2004;38(4):304-307. doi:10.1002/ppul.20109 [PubMed 15334507]
  22. Bercovitch RS, Tsai SC. Respiratory medications and sleep. Curr Respir Care Rep. 2012;1:123-130. doi:10.1007/s13665-012-0013-1
  23. Besinger RE, Niebyl JR. The safety and efficacy of tocolytic agents for the treatment of preterm labor. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 1990;45(7):415-440. doi:10.1097/00006254-199007000-00002 [PubMed 2195409]
  24. Bisgaard H, Le Roux P, Bjåmer D, Dymek A, Vermeulen JH, Hultquist C. Budesonide/formoterol maintenance plus reliever therapy: a new strategy in pediatric asthma. Chest. 2006;130(6):1733-1743. doi:10.1378/chest.130.6.1733 [PubMed 17166990]
  25. Bonini M, Di Mambro C, Calderon MA, et al. Beta₂-agonists for exercise-induced asthma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(10):CD003564. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003564.pub3. [PubMed 24089311]
  26. Boulton DW, Fawcett JP, and Fiddes TM, "Transplacental Distribution of Salbutamol Enantiomers at Caesarian Section," Br J Clin Pharmacol,1997, 44(6):587-90. [PubMed 9431837]
  27. British Thoracic Society (BTS). BTS/SIGN British guideline on the management of asthma. https://www.brit-thoracic.org.uk/quality-improvement/guidelines/asthma/. Updated 2019. Accessed January 15, 2019.
  28. Burchett DK, Darko W, Zahra J, Noviasky J, Probst L, Smith A. Mixing and compatibility guide for commonly used aerosolized medications. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2010;67(3):227-230. doi:10.2146/ajhp080261 [PubMed 20101066]
  29. Burggraaf J, Westendorp RG, in't Veen JC, et al. Cardiovascular side effects of inhaled salbutamol in hypoxic asthmatic patients. Thorax. 2001;56(7):567-569. doi:10.1136/thorax.56.7.567 [PubMed 11413357]
  30. Campbell RL, Kelso JM. Anaphylaxis: Emergency treatment. Post TW, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate Inc. http://www.uptodate.com. Accessed June 25, 2021.
  31. Carroll CL, Coro M, Cowl A, Sala KA, Schramm CM. Transient occult cardiotoxicity in children receiving continuous beta-agonist therapy. World J Pediatr. 2014;10(4):324-329. doi:10.1007/s12519-014-0467-z [PubMed 24599614]
  32. Carroll CL, Sala KA. Pediatric status asthmaticus. Crit Care Clin. 2013;29(2):153-166. doi:10.1016/j.ccc.2012.12.001 [PubMed 23537669]
  33. Cazzola M, Matera MG, Donner CF. Inhaled beta2-adrenoceptor agonists: cardiovascular safety in patients with obstructive lung disease. Drugs. 2005;65(12):1595-1610. doi:10.2165/00003495-200565120-00001 [PubMed 16060696]
  34. Cekici L, Valipour A, Kohansal R, Burghuber OC. Short-term effects of inhaled salbutamol on autonomic cardiovascular control in healthy subjects: a placebo-controlled study. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2009;67(4):394-402. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2009.03377.x [PubMed 19371312]
  35. Celli BR, MacNee W; ATS/ERS Task Force. Standards for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with COPD: a summary of the ATS/ERS position paper. [published correction appears in Eur Respir J. 2006;27(1):242]. Eur Respir J. 2004;23(6):932-946. [PubMed 15219010]
  36. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Neonatal deaths associated with use of benzyl alcohol—United States. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1982;31(22):290-291. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00001109.htm. [PubMed 6810084]
  37. Chan J, Cabrol D, Ingemarsson I, Marsal K, Moutquin JM, Fisk NM. Pragmatic comparison of beta2-agonist side effects within the worldwide atosiban versus beta agonists study. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2006;128(1-2):135-141. doi:10.1016/j.ejogrb.2006.01.030 [PubMed 16504369]
  38. Cheng A. Emergency treatment of anaphylaxis in infants and children. Paediatr Child Health. 2011;16(1):35-40. [PubMed 22211074]
  39. COMBIVENT Inhalation Aerosol Study Group. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, a combination of ipratropium and albuterol is more effective than either agent alone. An 85-day multicenter trial. Chest. 1994;105(5):1411-1419. [PubMed 8181328]
  40. Connolly MJ, Crowley JJ, Charan NB, Nielson CP, Vestal RE. Impaired bronchodilator response to albuterol in healthy elderly men and women. Chest. 1995;108(2):401-406. [PubMed 7634874]
  41. Daly K, Farrington E. Hypokalemia and hyperkalemia in infants and children: pathophysiology and treatment. J Pediatr Health Care. 2013;27(6):486-498. doi:10.1016/j.pedhc.2013.08.003 [PubMed 24139581]
  42. Donaldson SH, Bennett WD, Zeman KL, Knowles MR, Tarran R, Boucher RC. Mucus clearance and lung function in cystic fibrosis with hypertonic saline. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(3):241-250. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa043891 [PubMed 16421365]
  43. Eichenwald EC. Manual of Neonatal Care. 8th edition. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2017.
  44. Elesber AA, Prasad A, Lennon RJ, Wright RS, Lerman A, Rihal CS. Four-year recurrence rate and prognosis of the apical ballooning syndrome. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;50(5):448-452. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2007.03.050 [PubMed 17662398]
  45. Fanta CH, Cahill KN. Acute exacerbations of asthma in adults: Emergency department and inpatient management. Post TW, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate Inc. http://www.uptodate.com. Accessed September 4, 2019b.
  46. Fanta CH, Cahill KN. Acute exacerbations of asthma in adults: Home and office management. Post TW, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate Inc. http://www.uptodate.com. Accessed May 13, 2022c.
  47. Fanta CH, Lange-Vaidya N. Treatment of intermittent and mild persistent asthma in adolescents and adults. Post TW, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate Inc. http://www.uptodate.com. Accessed November 2, 2021a.
  48. Fok TF, Lam K, Ng PC, et al, "Randomised Crossover Trial of Salbutamol Aerosol Delivered by Metered Dose Inhaler, Jet Nebuliser, and Ultrasonic Nebuliser in Chronic Lung Disease," Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed, 1998, 79(2):F100-4. [PubMed 9828734]
  49. George M, Joshi SV, Concepcion E, Lee H. Paradoxical bronchospasm from benzalkonium chloride (BAC) preservative in albuterol nebulizer solution in a patient with acute severe asthma. A case report and literature review of airway effects of BAC. Respir Med Case Rep. 2017;21:39-41. doi:10.1016/j.rmcr.2017.03.005 [PubMed 28377880]
  50. Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA). Global strategy for asthma management and prevention. https://ginasthma.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/GINA-Main-Report-2021-V2-WMS.pdf. Updated 2021. Accessed May 28, 2021.
  51. Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA). Global strategy for asthma management and prevention. https://ginasthma.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/07/GINA-Main-Report-2022-FINAL-22-07-01-WMS.pdf. Updated 2022. Accessed September 2, 2022.
  52. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). Global strategy for prevention, diagnosis and management of COPD: 2023 report. https://goldcopd.org/2023-gold-report-2/. Updated 2023. Accessed January 30, 2023.
  53. Grammer LC. Idiopathic anaphylaxis. Post TW, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate Inc. http://www.uptodate.com. Accessed November 2, 2021.
  54. Grotta MB, Etchebere EC, Ribeiro AF, Romanato J, Ribeiro MA, Ribeiro JD. Pulmonary deposition of inhaled tobramycin prior to and after respiratory therapy and use of inhaled albuterol in cystic fibrosis patients colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Bras Pneumol. 2009;35(1):35-43. doi:10.1590/s1806-37132009000100006 [PubMed 19219329]
  55. Hadjikoumi I, Loader P, Bracken M, Milner AD. Bronchodilator therapy and hyperactivity in preschool children. Arch Dis Child. 2002;86(3):202-203. doi:10.1136/adc.86.3.202 [PubMed 11861242]
  56. Hess D. Delivery of inhaled medication in adults. Post TW, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate Inc. http://www.uptodate.com. Accessed May 13, 2022.
  57. Hickey RW, Gochman RF, Chande V, Davis HW. Albuterol delivered via metered-dose inhaler with spacer for outpatient treatment of young children with wheezing. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1994;148(2):189-194. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1994.02170020075013 [PubMed 8118539]
  58. Horikawa YT, Udaka TY, Crow JK, Takayama JI, Stein MT. Anxiety associated with asthma exacerbations and overuse of medication: the role of cultural competency. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2014;35(2):154-157. doi:10.1097/DBP.0000000000000029. Erratum in: J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2014;35(3):227. [PubMed 24509059]
  59. "Inactive" ingredients in pharmaceutical products: update (subject review). American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Drugs. Pediatrics. 1997;99(2):268-278. [PubMed 9024461]
  60. Kamin W, Erdnüss F, Krämer I. Inhalation solutions--which ones may be mixed? Physico-chemical compatibility of drug solutions in nebulizers--update 2013. J Cyst Fibros. 2014;13(3):243-250. doi:10.1016/j.jcf.2013.09.006 [PubMed 24172851]
  61. Kang SK. Diagnosis and treatment of an acute reaction to a radiologic contrast agent. Post TW, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate Inc. http://www.uptodate.com. Accessed August 12, 2021.
  62. Khwaja YH, Tai JM. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy with use of salbutamol nebulisation and aminophylline infusion in a patient with acute asthma exacerbation. BMJ Case Rep. 2016;2016:bcr2016217364. doi:10.1136/bcr-2016-217364 [PubMed 27793870]
  63. Kim HJ. Acute therapy for hyperkalemia with the combined regimen of bicarbonate and beta(2)-adrenergic agonist (salbutamol) in chronic renal failure patients. J Korean Med Sci. 1997;12(2):111-116. [PubMed 9170015]
  64. Krebs SE, Flood RG, Peter JR, Gerard JM. Evaluation of a high-dose continuous albuterol protocol for treatment of pediatric asthma in the emergency department. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2013;29(2):191-196. [PubMed 23364383]
  65. Lavonas EJ, Drennan IR, Gabrielli A, et al. Part 10: special circumstances of resuscitation: 2015 American Heart Association guidelines update for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Circulation. 2015;132(18)(suppl 2):S501-S518. doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000264 [PubMed 26472998]
  66. Lee H, Kim J, Tagmazyan K. Treatment of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the GOLD guidelines. Am Fam Physician. 2013;88(10):655-663, 663B-663F. [PubMed 24364481]
  67. Lehnhardt A, Kemper MJ. Pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of hyperkalemia. Pediatr Nephrol. 2011;26(3):377-384. doi:10.1007/s00467-010-1699-3 [PubMed 21181208]
  68. Leikin JB, Linowiecki KA, Soglin DF, et al, “Hypokalemia After Pediatric Albuterol Overdose: A Case Series,” Am J Emerg Med, 1994, 12(1):64-6. [PubMed 8285977]
  69. Lemanske RF Jr. Beta agonists in asthma: Acute administration and prophylactic use. Post TW, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate Inc. http://www.uptodate.com. Accessed November 2, 2021.
  70. Lieberman P, Nicklas RA, Randolph C, et al. Anaphylaxis--a practice parameter update 2015. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2015;115(5):341-384. doi: 10.1016/j.anai.2015.07.019. [PubMed 26505932]
  71. Lindner G, Burdmann EA, Clase CM, et al. Acute hyperkalemia in the emergency department: a summary from a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes conference. Eur J Emerg Med. 2020;27(5):329-337. doi:10.1097/MEJ.0000000000000691 [PubMed 32852924]
  72. Magee JS, Pittman LM, Jette-Kelly LA. Paradoxical bronchoconstriction with short-acting beta agonist. Am J Case Rep. 2018;19:1204-1207. doi:10.12659/AJCR.910888 [PubMed 30297688]
  73. Maggini V, Lombardi N, Lenti MC, et al. A case of pediatric Steven-Johnson Syndrome associated with albuterol consumption. Int Immunopharmacol. 2015;27(1):154-155. doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2015.05.007 [PubMed 25981113]
  74. Mahajan M, Tucker J, and Dolgin J, “Protocol for Management of Accidental Pediatric Albuterol Ingestions,” Vet Hum Toxicol, 1994, 36:361.
  75. Mandelberg A, Krupnik Z, Houri S, et al. Salbutamol metered-dose inhaler with spacer for hyperkalemia: how fast? how safe? Chest. 1999;115(3):617-622. [PubMed 10084465]
  76. Martin W, Unützer J, Szuba MP. Exacerbation of psychosis associated with inhaled albuterol. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1995;15(6):446-447. doi:10.1097/00004714-199512000-00013 [PubMed 8748438]
  77. Masilamani K, van der Voort J. The management of acute hyperkalaemia in neonates and children. Arch Dis Child. 2012;97(4):376-380. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2011-300623 [PubMed 21920871]
  78. McClure RJ, Prasad VK, Brocklebank JT. Treatment of hyperkalaemia using intravenous and nebulised salbutamol. Arch Dis Child. 1994;70(2):126-128. [PubMed 8129434]
  79. Mhanna MJ, Patel JS, Patel S, et al, "The Effects of Racemic Albuterol Versus Levalbuterol in Very Low Birth Weight Infants," Pediatr Pulmonol, 2009, 44(8):778-83. [PubMed 19598281]
  80. Middleton PG, Gade EJ, Aguilera C, et al. ERS/TSANZ task force statement on the management of reproduction and pregnancy in women with airways diseases. Eur Respir J. 2020;55(2):1901208. doi: 10.1183/13993003.01208-2019 [PubMed 31699837]
  81. Mount DB. Treatment and prevention of hyperkalemia in adults. Post TW, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate Inc. http://www.uptodate.com. Accessed February 17, 2021.
  82. Mutlu GM, Moonjelly E, Chan L, Olopade CO. Laryngospasm and paradoxical bronchoconstriction after repeated doses of beta 2-agonists containing edetate disodium. Mayo Clin Proc. 2000;75(3):285-287. [PubMed 10725956]
  83. Nair S, Thomas E, Pearson SB, Henry MT. A randomized controlled trial to assess the optimal dose and effect of nebulized albuterol in acute exacerbations of COPD. Chest. 2005;128(1):48-54. [PubMed 16002915]
  84. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP). Expert Panel Report 3: Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma. NIH Publication No. 08-4051. Bethesda, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; 2007. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/files/docs/guidelines/asthgdln.pdf. Accessed June 22, 2015.
  85. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP). 2020 focused updates to the asthma management guidelines: A report from the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program Coordinating Committee Expert Panel Working Group. NIH Publication No. 20-HL-8140. US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; December 2020. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/all-publications-and-resources/2020-focused-updates-asthma-management-guidelines. Accessed December 10, 2021.
  86. NICE guideline [NG25]. Preterm labour and birth. Published November 20, 2015. Updated August 2, 2019. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng25?unlid=9291036072016213201257.
  87. Nievas IF, Anand KJ. Severe acute asthma exacerbation in children: a stepwise approach for escalating therapy in a pediatric intensive care unit. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther. 2013;18(2):88-104. doi:10.5863/1551-6776-18.2.88 [PubMed 23798903]
  88. O'Byrne PM. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Post TW, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate Inc. http://www.uptodate.com. Accessed February 11, 2020.
  89. O'Callaghan C, Milner AD, and Swarbrick A, “Nebulized Salbutamol Does Have a Protective Effect on Airways in Children Under One Year Old,” Arch Dis Child, 1988, 63(5):479-83. [PubMed 3389861]
  90. Orth LE, Kelly BJ, Lagasse CA, Collins SW, Ryan MF. Safety and effectiveness of albuterol solutions with and without benzalkonium chloride when administered by continuous nebulization. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2018;75(22):1791-1797. doi:10.2146/ajhp180154 [PubMed 30282664]
  91. Page RL 2nd, O'Bryant CL, Cheng D, et al; American Heart Association Clinical Pharmacology and Heart Failure and Transplantation Committees of the Council on Clinical Cardiology; Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia; Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing; and Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research. Drugs That May Cause or Exacerbate Heart Failure: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association [published correction appears in Circulation. 2016;134(12):e261]. Circulation. 2016;134(6):e32-e69. [PubMed 27400984]
  92. Papadopoulos NG, Arakawa H, Carlsen KH, et al. International consensus on (ICON) pediatric asthma. Allergy. 2012;67(8):976-997. doi:10.1111/j.1398-9995.2012.02865.x [PubMed 22702533]
  93. Parsons JP, Hallstrand TS, Mastronarde JG, et al; American Thoracic Society Subcommittee on Exercise-induced Bronchoconstriction. An official American Thoracic Society clinical practice guideline: exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013;187(9):1016-1027. [PubMed 23634861]
  94. Patel B, Assad D, Wiemann C, Zughaib M. Repeated use of albuterol inhaler as a potential cause of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Am J Case Rep. 2014;15:221-225. doi: 10.12659/AJCR.890388 [PubMed 24855502]
  95. Patel SJ, Teach SJ. Asthma. Pediatr Rev. 2019;40(11):549-567. doi:10.1542/pir.2018-0282 [PubMed 31676529]
  96. Pertzborn MC, Prabhakaran S, Abu-Hasan M, Baker D, Wu S, Wu Y, Hendeles L. Continuous albuterol with benzalkonium in children hospitalized with severe asthma. Pediatrics. 2020;145(4):e20190107. doi:10.1542/peds.2019-0107 [PubMed 32165556]
  97. Peters S, McCallister JW. Treatment of moderate persistent asthma in adolescents and adults. Post TW, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate Inc. http://www.uptodate.com. Accessed June 25, 2021.
  98. ProAir Digihaler (albuterol) [prescribing information]. Parsippany, NJ: Teva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc; December 2022.
  99. ProAir HFA (albuterol) [prescribing information]. Parsippany, NJ: Teva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc; August 2020.
  100. ProAir RespiClick (albuterol) [prescribing information]. Parsippany, NJ: Teva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc; September 2022.
  101. ProAir RespiClick (albuterol) [prescribing information]. Horsham, PA: Teva Respiratory; December 2018.
  102. Proventil HFA (albuterol) [prescribing information]. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck & Co Inc; July 2018.
  103. Putcha N, Allon M. Management of hyperkalemia in dialysis patients. Semin Dial. 2007;20(5):431-439. [PubMed 17897250]
  104. Rachelefsky GS and Siegel SC, “Asthma in Infants and Children - Treatment of Childhood Asthma: Part II,” J Allergy Clin Immunol, 1985, 76(3):409-25. [PubMed 2863296]
  105. Ray I, Evans CJ. Paranoid psychosis with Ventolin (salbutamol tablets b.p.). Can Psychiatr Assoc J. 1978;23(6):427. doi:10.1177/070674377802300622 [PubMed 709492]
  106. Refer to manufacturer's labeling.
  107. Regli A, Becke K, von Ungern-Sternberg BS. An update on the perioperative management of children with upper respiratory tract infections. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2017;30(3):362-367. doi:10.1097/ACO.0000000000000460 [PubMed 28291127]
  108. Saw HP, Chiu CD, Chiu YP, Ji HR, Chen JY. Nebulized salbutamol diminish the blood glucose fluctuation in the treatment of non-oliguric hyperkalemia of premature infants. J Chin Med Assoc. 2019;82(1):55-59. doi:10.1016/j.jcma.2018.04.002 [PubMed 30839405]
  109. Say B, Degirmencioglu H, Gozde Kanmaz Kutman H, Uras N, Dilmen U. Supraventricular tachycardia after nebulized salbutamol therapy in a neonate: case report [in English and Spanish]. Arch Argent Pediatr. 2015;113(2):e98-100. doi:10.5546/aap.2015.e98 [PubMed 25727842]
  110. Scalfaro P, Sly PD, Sims C, Habre W. Salbutamol prevents the increase of respiratory resistance caused by tracheal intubation during sevoflurane anesthesia in asthmatic children. Anesth Analg. 2001;93(4):898-902. doi:10.1097/00000539-200110000-00019 [PubMed 11574353]
  111. Schissler AJ, Celli BR. Prevalence of paradoxical bronchoconstriction after inhaled albuterol. Respir Med. 2018;141:100-102. doi:10.1016/j.rmed.2018.06.028 [PubMed 30053954]
  112. Schuh S, Parkin P, Rajan A, et al, “High- Versus Low-Dose, Frequently Administered, Nebulized Albuterol in Children With Severe, Acute Asthma,” Pediatrics, 1989, 83(4):513-8. [PubMed 2927990]
  113. Schuh S, Reider MJ, Canny G, et al, “Nebulized Albuterol in Acute Childhood Asthma: Comparison of Two Doses,” Pediatrics, 1990, 86(4):509-13. [PubMed 2216613]
  114. Schweich PJ, Hurt TL, Walkley EI, Mullen N, Archibald LF. The use of nebulized albuterol in wheezing infants. Pediatr Emerg Care. 1992;8(4):184-188. doi:10.1097/00006565-199208000-00003 [PubMed 1513726]
  115. Sears MR. Adverse effects of beta-agonists. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002;110(6 Suppl):S322-8. doi:10.1067/mai.2002.129966 [PubMed 12464943]
  116. Sentilhes L, Sénat MV, Ancel PY, et al. Prevention of spontaneous preterm birth: guidelines for clinical practice from the French College of Gynaecologists and Obstetricians (CNGOF). Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2017;210:217-224. doi:10.1016/j.ejogrb.2016.12.035 [PubMed 28068594]
  117. Shenoi RP, Timm N; Committee on Drugs; Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medicine. Drugs Used to Treat Pediatric Emergencies. Pediatrics. 2020;145(1):e20193450. [PubMed 31871244]
  118. Simons FE, Ardusso LR, Bilò MB, et al; World Allergy Organization. World Allergy Organization anaphylaxis guidelines: summary. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127(3):587-93.e1-e22. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2011.01.038. [PubMed 21377030]
  119. Singh BS, Sadiq HF, Noguchi A, Keenan WJ. Efficacy of albuterol inhalation in treatment of hyperkalemia in premature neonates. J Pediatr. 2002;141(1):16-20. [PubMed 12091845]
  120. Spiller HA, Ramoska EA, Henretig FM, et al, “A Two-Year Retrospective Study of Accidental Pediatric Albuterol Ingestions,” Pediatr Emerg Care, 1993, 9(6):338-40. [PubMed 8302698]
  121. Spooner LM, Olin JL. Paradoxical bronchoconstriction with albuterol administered by metered-dose inhaler and nebulizer solution. Ann Pharmacother. 2005;39(11):1924-1927. doi:10.1345/aph.1G248 [PubMed 16174783]
  122. Stack MA, Hakemi A. Diagnosis and treatment of exercise-induced bronchospasm: a review. JAAPA. 2011;24(6):26-30. doi:10.1097/01720610-201106000-00005 [PubMed 21682173]
  123. Stanojevic DA, Alla VM, Lynch JD, Hunter CB. Case of reverse takotsubo cardiomyopathy in status asthmaticus. South Med J. 2010;103(9):964. doi:10.1097/SMJ.0b013e3181eb349d [PubMed 20689475]
  124. Stoller JK. COPD exacerbations: management. Post TW, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate Inc. http://www.uptodate.com. Accessed March 11, 2022.
  125. Tandeter H, Kobal S, Katz A. Swallowing-induced atrial tachyarrhythmia triggered by salbutamol: case report and review of the literature. Clin Cardiol. 2010;33(6):E116-E120. doi:10.1002/clc.20663 [PubMed 20552622]
  126. Udezue E, D'Souza L, Mahajan M. Hypokalemia after normal doses of neubulized albuterol (salbutamol). Am J Emerg Med. 1995;13(2):168-171. doi:10.1016/0735-6757(95)90086-1 [PubMed 7893301]
  127. Vanden Hoek TL, Morrison LJ, Shuster M, et al. Part 12: cardiac arrest in special situations: 2010 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care [published corrections appear in Circulation. 2011;123(6)e239; Circulation. 2011;124(15):e405]. Circulation. 2010;122(18)(suppl 3):S829-S861. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.971069 [PubMed 20956228]
  128. Ventolin (albuterol) [prescribing information]. Research Triangle Park, NC: GlaxoSmithKline; May 2017.
  129. Ventolin Diskus (salbutamol) [product monograph]. Mississauga, Ontario, Canada: GlaxoSmithKline Inc; April 2016.
  130. Ventolin Diskus (salbutamol) [product monograph]. Mississauga, Ontario, Canada: GlaxoSmithKline Inc; November 2017.
  131. Ventolin HFA inhalation aerosol (salbutamol) [prescribing information]. Research Triangle Park, NC: GlaxoSmithKline Inc; August 2021.
  132. Ventolin HFA inhalation aerosol (salbutamol) [product monograph]. Mississauga, Ontario, Canada: GlaxoSmithKline Inc; March 2021.
  133. Ventolin IV infusion solution (salbutamol) [product monograph]. Mississauga, Ontario, Canada: GlaxoSmithKline, Inc; July 2016.
  134. von Ungern-Sternberg BS, Habre W, Erb TO, Heaney M. Salbutamol premedication in children with a recent respiratory tract infection. Paediatr Anaesth. 2009;19(11):1064-1069. doi:10.1111/j.1460-9592.2009.03130.x [PubMed 19694973]
  135. von Ungern-Sternberg BS, Sommerfield D, Slevin L, Drake-Brockman TFE, Zhang G, Hall GL. Effect of albuterol premedication vs placebo on the occurrence of respiratory adverse events in children undergoing tonsillectomies: The REACT randomized clinical trial. JAMA Pediatr. 2019;173(6):527-533. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.0788 [PubMed 31009034]
  136. Weiler JM, Brannan JD, Randolph CC, et al. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction update-2016. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016;138(5):1292-1295. [PubMed 27665489]
  137. Weiner ID, Wingo CS. Hyperkalemia: a potential silent killer. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1998;9(8):1535-1543. [PubMed 9697678]
  138. Weisberg LS. Management of severe hyperkalemia. Crit Care Med. 2008;36(12):3246-3251. [PubMed 18936701]
  139. Wenzel S. Treatment of severe asthma in adolescents and adults. Post TW, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate Inc. http://www.uptodate.com. Accessed November 4, 2019.
  140. Werner HA. Status asthmaticus in children: a review. Chest. 2001;119(6):1913-1929. doi:10.1378/chest.119.6.1913 [PubMed 11399724]
  141. Whitehouse AM, Novosel S. Salbutamol psychosis. Biol Psychiatry. 1989;26(6):631-633. doi:10.1016/0006-3223(89)90088-7 [PubMed 2790100]
  142. Wiley JF 2nd, Spiller HA, Krenzelok EP, et al, “Unintentional Albuterol Ingestion in Children,” Pediatr Emerg Care, 1994, 10(4):193-6. [PubMed 7937293]
  143. Williams DM, Rubin BK. Clinical Pharmacology of Bronchodilator Medications. Respir Care. 2018;63(6):641-654. doi:10.4187/respcare.06051 [PubMed 29794201]
  144. World Health Organization (WHO). Breastfeeding and maternal medication, recommendations for drugs in the eleventh WHO model list of essential drugs. 2002. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/62435.
  145. World Health Organization (WHO). WHO Recommendations on interventions to improve preterm birth outcomes. 2015. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK321160/.
Topic 9396 Version 645.0

آیا می خواهید مدیلیب را به صفحه اصلی خود اضافه کنید؟